Caliph Abu Bakr As-Siddiq & Umar ibn al Khattab

Abu Bakr As-Siddiq – the first Caliph of Islam

Abu Bakr As-Siddiq (the truthful one) may Allah be pleased with him, was a faithful companion of Prophet Muhammad ﷺ. All Muslims of course known Him. The first caliph after the Prophet’s death ﷺ marked Islam’s history. This truthful companion occupied a special place in the Prophet’s life ﷺ and the Prophet appreciated him more than any other companions.


Saeed Ibn Zayd said, “I testify that I heard the Prophet ﷺ said:


Ten [companions] are promised Paradise. The Prophet is in Paradise. Abu Bakr is in Paradise. Omar is in Paradise. Othman is in Paradise. Ali is in Paradise. Talha is in Paradise. Zoubeir Ibn Al-Awam is in Paradise. Abu Obeida Ibn Jarrah is in Paradise. Abd ‘Ar-Rahman Ibn Awf is in Paradise, and the tenth I do not want to tell you. Compagnons of the Prophet ﷺ insisted on knowing it by asking Him twice: “who is he? “. The first time He remained silent. And the second time, He answered:


“It is Said Ibn Zayd.” (Reported by At-Tirmidhi and Abu Dawud)


In sha Allah, we will be interested in the life of these ten companions who were promised Paradise. Their lives and their struggles are examples for all of us. Indeed, we will focus on their qualities and meritorious deeds that make them role models. Now, we will stop on Abu Bakr As-Siddiq (the truthful one).



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His genealogy, his description, and his conversion to Islam


His real name was ‘Abdallah, son of’ Uthman, son of Amir, son of Amr, son of Ka’b, son of Sa’ad, son of Taym, son of Murrah, son of Ka’b, son of Lou’ayy. The latter is the common ancestor he had with the Prophet Muhammad ﷺ.


He married Qutaylah bint ‘Abd al-‘Uzza, with whom he had two children named’ Abdallah and Asma. Abu Bakr also married Umm Rûman bint ‘Amir, with whom he also had two children: Abd Ar-Rahman and’ Aisha. He also married Asma’s bint ‘Umays, with whom he had a son, Muhammad ibn Abu Bakr. Finally, he married Habiba bint Kharijah, who gave birth to Umm Kulthum after his death (RA).


According to his daughter ‘Aisha (RA): “He was skin-white, thin, his beard was light, his back slightly arched. Because of his thinness, his Izar was sometimes detached from his hips. His face was emaciated, his eyes sunken in their sockets, his forehead protruding, the back of his hand smooth. He was dyeing his beard with henna and Katm.


He was very courageous, generous, patient, kind, indulgent, and endowed with a strong will. Moreover, he was detached from this world and had an unshakeable trust in Allah.


Abu Bakr As-Siddiq was the first man to convert to Islam. Remember that Khadija (RA) was the first woman to convert to Islam, ‘Ali (RA) was the first child to convert, and finally, Zayd ibn Hadrithah was the first freed slave to enter the Path of Allah.


Abu Bakr became the cause of the conversion of many influential men such as ‘Uthman ibn’ Affan, ‘Abdurrahman ibn’ Awf, or Az-Zubayr ibn Al-‘Awwam. Moreover, following his conversion, Abu Bakr freed many slaves converted to Islam who were persecuted by their master, such as Bilal (RA).


His merits with the Prophet ﷺ


‘Aisha, Abu Sa’id and Ibn’ Abbas (RA) claimed that Abu Bakr was in the cave with the Prophet ﷺ during the emigration (Hijrah) from Makkah to Madinah.


If you do not aid the Prophet – Allah had already aided him when those who disbelieved had driven him out [of Makkah] as one of two when they were in the cave, and he said to his companion, “Do not grieve; indeed Allah is with us.“(Surat At-Tawbah: verse 40).


Anas (RA) reported from Abu Bakr that he said, “I said to the Prophet ﷺ while we were in the cave:’ If one of the polytheists had a look in front of his feet he would see us. The Prophet ﷺ said to me, ‘ Do you think they can do anything against two people while Allah is with them?


Abu Bakr was the best of all the companions. Indeed, Ibn ‘Umar (RA) said: “During the lifetime of the Prophet ﷺ, we used to prioritize companions. We considered that Abu Bakr was the best of them, then came ‘Umar, then’ Uthman ibn ‘Affan, may Allah be pleased with them.


Also, Muhammad ibn Al-Hanafiyyah reported: “I asked my father [‘Ali ibn Abi Tâlib]: Who is the best of men after the Prophet ﷺ? He replied: Abu Bakr. I continued: And then? He replied, ‘Umar. I asked later – lest he tells me: ‘Uthman – And you, then? He replied: I am only one Muslim man among many others.


His rank with the Prophet ﷺ


Abu Bakr was the first caliph of Islam
Credit: Petermaleh

Abu Bakr occupied an essential rank in the eyes of the Prophet ﷺ. Thus, Ibn ‘Abbas (RA) reported from the Prophet ﷺ that he said:’ If I had to choose a close friend, I would have chosen Abu Bakr. But he is my brother and my companion.”


Muhammad ibn Jubayr ibn Mut’im reported from his father that he said, “A woman wanted to consult the Prophet ﷺ. He asked her to come back later. She asked: but what if I come back and you’re gone? He says, “If I am no longer here, consult Abu Bakr.


Abu Bakr was the Prophet’s most beloved companion ﷺ. Indeed, Abu ‘Uthman said:’ ‘Amr ibn Al-‘As (AS) informed me that the Prophet ﷺ sent him to head the army for Dhat As-Salasil expedition. This one asked the Prophet ﷺ: Who is the one you love the most? The Prophet ﷺ replied,’ ‘Aisha. Amr added, “And among men? The Prophet ﷺ said, The father of the latter. Amr asked again: Who else after him? He says, ” Umar ibn Al Khattab.  And mentioned other men.


Abu Bakr As-Siddiq was with the Prophet ﷺ all his life, in Mecca and Medina, during the emigration and expeditions. He never left the Messenger of Allah ﷺ, despite all the hardships and difficulties they encountered.


Beyond this, he performed many works following the Prophet’s death ﷺ, including the order of his funerary washing. He performed His burial, the noble Quran’s compilation, sending armies to spread Allah’s religion in Persia and Greater Syria.


Therefore, Abu Bark As-Siddiq was a pious servant and companion of the most faithful, endowed with noble qualities and enduring all possible punishments to satisfy Allah and His Messenger ﷺ.


May Allah have mercy on the Messenger’s companion. May He be pleased with him, raise him in degrees, and allow us to love him.


Umar ibn al Khattab – The second Caliph of Islam


Umar was the second caliph after Abu Bakr
Credit: Petermaleh

After presenting a short biography of Abu Bakr As Siddiq, we continue the caliphs’ biography by offering ‘Umar ibn Al Khattab’s life, the second caliph of Islam. He succeeded to the Caliphate after Abu Bakr As-Siddiq (RA).


His name was Abu Hafs’ Umar bin Al Khattab ibn Nufayl (RA). ﷺ. We will describe his noble personality; then, we will expose his qualities before evoking his Caliphate in sha’Allah.


His conversion and description

Umar ibn Al Khattab (RA) converted to Islam following Allah’s Messenger ﷺ in his favor. Indeed, the Prophet of Allah said:’ O Allah! Strengthen Islam by ‘Umar ibn Al Khattab or Abu Jahl ibn Hisham! “(Reported by At Tirmidhi).


The conversion of ‘Umar ibn Al Khattab has touched many people, proving this companion’s influence (RA). Indeed, when he converted, the angel Jibril (AS) came down to earth and said, “O Mohamed! The inhabitants of heaven rejoiced with the conversion of ‘Umar to Islam.’“Also, Ibn Mas’ud (RA) said, “We have been strong ever since the conversion of ‘Umar.”


His qualities and merits


‘Umar was a pious, honest, and trustworthy man. Our noble Prophet ﷺ said, “If there were to be a Prophet after me, it would be ‘Umar ibn Al Khattab.” (reported by At Tirmidhi).


He feared Allah so much that he cried daily. It proves his piety and fear of our Creator. Moreover, he had so many merits that, when the Messenger of Allah ﷺ  asked the angel Jibril (AS) about the merits of ‘Umar (RA), he answered:


“If I were with you – or if I stayed with you the time that Nuh spent with his people – nine hundred and fifty years – the merits of ‘Umar would not end. And ‘Umar is one of the blessings of Abu Bakr.”


Ma sha’Allah! The merits of ‘Umar (RA) are endless!


Also, ‘Umar (RA) participated in all battles with the Messenger of Allah ﷺ. He was the first to gather the faithful during the tarawih prayer during Ramadan.


On the other hand, ‘Umar (RA) did not spend his property in vain. Indeed, when he wanted to buy something that cost a dirham, he delayed a year. He (RA) said:


“Whoever fears Allah the Highest does not satisfy his anger, and whoever fears Allah does not do what he desires.”


One day he said, “Praise be to Allah, who made me reach a rank where there is no one above me.


Umar (RA) did not waste to avoid the wrath of our Lord. Finally, he was humble, fair, and equitable.



His Caliphate


Muslims pledged allegiance to Umar ibn Al Khattab (may Allah be pleased with him) on Abu Bakr As-Siddiq’s death. The latter had recommended him before his death. During his Caliphate, he took care of women whose men were absent, including buying food for them. He carried on his back the bags of flour for widows and orphans. And when he was told, “Let me take your place,” he answered, “And who will bear my sins in my place on the Day of Retribution?


He was kind, helpful to his Muslim brethren. He took care of his neighbour, so he was a remarkable caliph and a man of noble qualities.


May Allah have mercy on ‘Umar ibn Al Khattab, faithful companion of the Messenger. May He give Him His pleasure and the height of His blessings in the abode of Eternity.


If you want to know more about the life of the companions of our beloved Prophet ﷺ, the al-dirassa center provides online Islamic studies courses. Do not hesitate to contact us!

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