Introduction to the active participle – اِسْمُ الفاعِلِ

 

In Arabic, the noun used for the doer of an action (subject), is called اِسْمُ الفاعِلِ. It is formed by adding an alif – ا to the first radical of the verb فَعَلَ. The middle letter is given a kasrah  and the last radical is given a tanween. The active participle pattern will be فَاعِلٌ.

 

  Example:

 

سَجَدَ /  سَاجِدٌ

one who prostrates / to prostrate

 

حَمِدَ / حَامِدٌ

one who praises / to praise

 

كَفَرَ / كَافِرٌ

A disbeliever / to disbelieve

Active participle table for masculine gender:

 

Nominative case – حَالَةُ الرَّفَعِ

 

Singular

فَاعِلٌ

A doer

Dual

فَاعِلانِ

Two doers

Plural

فَاعِلُوْنَ

Doers

 

Accusative – حَالَةُ النَصَبِ

 

Singular

فَاعِلًا

A doer

Dual

فَاعِلَيْنِ

Two doers

Plural

فَاعِلَيْنِ

Doers

 

Genitive – حَالَةُ الجَرِّ

 

Singular

فَاعِلٍ

A doer

Dual

فَاعِلَيْنِ

Two doers

Plural

فَاعِلَيْنِ

Doers

 

Active participle table for feminine gender:

Nominative case – حَالَةُ الرَّفَعِ

 

Singular

فَاعِلَةٌ

A doer

Dual

فَاعِلَتَانِ

Two doers

Plural

فَاعِلاتٌ

Doers

 

Accusative – حَالَةُ النَصَبِ

 

Singular

فَاعِلَةً

A doer

Dual

فَاعِلَتَيْن

Two doers

Plural

فَاعِلات

Doers

 

Genitive – حَالَةُ الجَرِّ

 

Singular

فَاعِلَةٍ

A doer

Dual

فَاعِلَتَيْن

Two doers

Plural

فَاعِلات

Doers

 

 

Examples of active participles used in the Holy Quran

 

 

قُلْ يَا أَيُّهَا الْكَافِرُونَ

Say, “O disbelievers, (109:1)

 

 

وَلَا أَنَا عَابِدٌ مَّا عَبَدتُّمْ

 

Nor will I be a worshipper of what you worship. (109:4)

 

 

وَلَا أَنتُمْ عَابِدُونَ مَا أَعْبُدُ

Nor will you be worshippers of what I worship. (109:5)

 

 فَيُصْبِحُوا عَلَىٰ مَا أَسَرُّوا فِي أَنفُسِهِمْ نَادِمِينَ

and they will become, over what they have been concealing within themselves, regretful. (5:52)

 

وَلَهُمْ فِيهَا أَزْوَاجٌ مُّطَهَّرَةٌ ۖ وَهُمْ فِيهَا خَالِدُونَ

And they will have therein purified spouses, and they will abide therein eternally. (2:25)

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Hamzated and assimilated verb

 

 

  Hamzated verbs on the pattern of أَكَلَسَأَلَ and قَرَأَ or assimilated verbs on the pattern of وَعَدَ and يَسِرَ take their active participle on the pattern of فَاعِلٌ.

 

  Examples:

 

أَكَلَ / آكِلٌ

One who eats

سَأَلَ / سَائِلٌ

Questioner

قَرَأَ / قَارِئٌ

One who reads

وَعَدَ / وَاعِدٌ

One who promises

يَسِرَ / يَاسِرٌ

One who becomes easy

 

Examples:  

 

سَأَلَ سَائِلٌ بِعَذَابٍ وَاقِعٍ

A supplicant asked for a punishment bound to happen (70:1)

 

  Note: Some active participles are on the pattern of فَعِيْلٌ. These come as adjectives and describe eternal, everlasting qualities.  

 

Example:  

 

عَظِيْكٌ – Great one

حَسِيْنٌ – Good one

كَبِيْرٌ – Big one

 

قَالَ فَاخْرُجْ مِنْهَا فَإِنَّكَ رَجِيمٌ 

[Allah] said, “Then get out of it, for indeed, you are expelled. (15:34)

 

إِنْ هَـٰذَا إِلَّا مَلَكٌ كَرِيمٌ

this is none but a noble angel.” (12:31)

 

الرَّحْمَـٰنِ الرَّحِيمِ

The Entirely Merciful, the Especially Merciful, (1:3)

 

Hollow verbs

 

When the second radical is the weak letter و or ى, then their active participle will be on the pattern of فَاعِلٌ.

 

Examples:  

قَالَ / قَائِلٌ

one who speaks

 

بَاغَ / بائِغٌ

One who sells

 

Defective verbs

 

When the third radical is the weak letter و or ى, e.g., دَعَا and رَمَى, the active participle will be on the pattern of دَاعِوٌ and دَامِوٌ as per the pattern فَاعِلٌ. However, we observe a change in its formation.

 

دَعَا = دَاعِوٌ  – دَاعٍ

One who calls

 

رَمَى = رامِوُ – رامٍ

One who throws

 

لَقِيَ = لاقِوٌ – لاقٍ

One who meets

 

This is because when و or ى bear dammah tanween and is preceded by kasrah, then the و and ى are dropped, and the harakah of the previous letter is changed to tanween kasrah .

 

Active participle table for masculine gender – دَاعٍ:

 

 

Nominative case – حَالَةُ الرَّفَعِ

 

Singular

دَاعٍ

A caller

Dual

دَاعِيَانِ

Two caller

Plural

دَاعُوْنَ

Callers

 

Accusative – حَالَةُ النَصَبِ

 

Singular

دَاعِيًا

A caller

Dual

دَاعِيَيْنِ

Two caller

Plural

دَاعِيْنَ

Callers

 

Genitive – حَالَةُ الجَرِّ

 

Singular

دَاعٍ

A caller

Dual

دَاعِيَيْنِ

Two caller

Plural

دَاعِيْنَ

Callers

 

Active participle table for feminine gender:

 

Nominative case – حَالَةُ الرَّفَعِ

 

Singular

دَاعِيَةٌ

A caller

Dual

دَاعِيَتَانِ

Two caller

Plural

دَاعِيَاتٌ

Callers

 

Accusative – حَالَةُ النَصَبِ

 

Singular

دَاعِيَةً

A caller

Dual

دَاعِيَتَيْنِ

Two caller

Plural

دَاعِيَاتٍ

Callers

 

Genitive – حَالَةُ الجَرِّ

 

Singular

دَاعِيَةٍ

A caller

Dual

دَاعِيَتَيْنِ

Two caller

Plural

دَاعِيَاتٍ

Callers

 

  Note: When اَلْ is added to the singular of active participles like دَاعٍ, the ى will be written as الدَّاعِي.  

 

Double lettered verbs – الْمُضاعَفُ

 

According to the pattern فَاعِلٌ, the active participle of verbs on the pattern of ظَنَّ should be ظَانِنٌ. But they will be written with a shaddah as ظَآنٌّ.  

 

Examples:  

 

ظَنَّ =ظَانِنٌ – ظَآنٌّ

One who suspects.

ضَلَّ = ضّالِلٌ – ضَالٌّ

One who goes astray

 

صِرَاطَ الَّذِينَ أَنْعَمْتَ عَلَيْهِمْ غَيْرِ الْمَغْضُوبِ عَلَيْهِمْ وَلَا الضَّالِّينَ

The path of those upon whom You have bestowed favor, not of those who have evoked [Your] anger or of those who are astray. (1:7)

 

Active participle table for masculine gender – ظَنَّ:

 

Nominative case – حَالَةُ الرَّفَعِ

 

Singular

ظَآنٌّ

One who suspects

Dual

ظَآنَّانِ

Those two who suspects

Plural

ظَآنُّوْنَ

Those who suspect

 

Accusative – حَالَةُ النَصَبِ

 

Singular

ظَآنَّا

One who suspects

Dual

ظَآنَّيْنِ

Those two who suspects

Plural

ظَآنَّيْنَ

Those who suspect

 

Genitive – حَالَةُ الجَرِّ

 

Singular

ظَآنٍّ

One who suspects

Dual

ظَآنَّيْنِ

Those two who suspects

Plural

ظَآنَّيْنَ

Those who suspect

 

Active participle table for feminine gender:

 

Nominative case – حَالَةُ الرَّفَعِ

Singular

ظَآنَّةٌ

One who suspects

 

Dual

ظَآنَّتَانِ

Those two who suspects

 

Plural

ظَآنَّاتٌ

Those who suspect

 

Accusative – حَالَةُ النَصَبِ

 

Singular

ظَآنَّةً

One who suspects

Dual

ظَآنَّتَانِ

Those two who suspects

Plural

ظَآنَّاتٌ

Those who suspect

 

Genitive – حَالَةُ الجَرِّ

 

Singular

ظَآنَّةٍ

One who suspects

Dual

ظَآنَّتَانِ

Those two who suspects

Plural

ظَآنَّاتٌ

Those who suspect

 

Examples of Active participle used in the Holy Quran

 

تَنزِيلُ الْكِتَابِ مِنَ اللَّـهِ الْعَزِيزِ الْحَكِيمِ

The revelation of the Qur’an is from Allah, the Exalted in Might, the Wise. (39:1)

 

 أَمَّنْ هُوَ قَانِتٌ آنَاءَ اللَّيْلِ سَاجِدًا وَقَائِمًا يَحْذَرُ الْآخِرَةَ وَيَرْجُو رَحْمَةَ رَبِّهِ

Is one who is devoutly obedient during periods of the night, prostrating and standing [in prayer], fearing the Hereafter and hoping for the mercy of his Lord, [like one who does not]? (39:9)

 

وَأَرْضُ اللَّـهِ وَاسِعَةٌ ۗ إِنَّمَا يُوَفَّى الصَّابِرُونَ أَجْرَهُم بِغَيْرِ حِسَابٍ

and the earth of Allah is spacious. Indeed, the patient will be given their reward without account.” (39:10)

 

التَّائِبُونَ الْعَابِدُونَ الْحَامِدُونَ السَّائِحُونَ الرَّاكِعُونَ السَّاجِدُونَ الْآمِرُونَ بِالْمَعْرُوفِ وَالنَّاهُونَ عَنِ الْمُنكَرِ وَالْحَافِظُونَ لِحُدُودِ اللَّـهِ ۗ وَبَشِّرِ الْمُؤْمِنِينَ

[Such believers are] the repentant, the worshippers, the praisers [of Allah], the travelers [for His cause], those who bow and prostrate [in prayer], those who enjoin what is right and forbid what is wrong, and those who observe the limits [set by] Allah. And give good tidings to the believers. (9:112)

You have now completed this Arabic free lesson. The next one will be insha’Allah about the passive particle in Arabic.

 

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