Introduction

 

 

Adjectives are words that describe the quality, colour or defect of the other noun. They are usually derived from intransitive verbs, which note a state or condition rather than an act.

 

  There are certain patterns to denote an adjective.  

 

1. فَاعِلٌ – active participle

 

  Examples:

 

  • صَالِحٌ – righteous/good
  • عَالِمٌ – knowledgeable
  • عَابِدٌ – worshipper
  •  

 وَلَا أَنَا عَابِدٌ مَّا عَبَدتُّمْ

 

 

Nor will I be a worshipper of what you worship. (109:4)

 

 

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2. Adjectives pattern: فَعِيلٌ

 

  Examples:

 

  • كَرِمٌ – noble
  • عَظِيمٌ – great
  • رَحِيمٌ – merciful
  • قَدِيرٌ – powerful

 

 

وَاللَّـهُ عَلِيمٌ حَكِيمٌ

 

 

 and Allah is Knowing and Wise. (9:15)

 

 

لَّهُمْ دَرَجَاتٌ عِندَ رَبِّهِمْ وَمَغْفِرَةٌ وَرِزْقٌ كَرِيمٌ

 

 

For them are degrees [of high position] with their Lord and forgiveness and noble provision. (8:4)

 

 

3. Adjectives pattern: فَعُولٌ

 

  Examples:

 

  • ظَلُومٌ – great wrong-doer
  • غَفُورٌ – forgiver
  • رَءُوفٌ – compassionate
  •  

إِنَّ الْإِنسَانَ لَظَلُومٌ كَفَّارٌ

 

 

Indeed, humankind is [generally] most unjust and ungrateful. (14:34)

 

 

 وَاللَّـهُ غَفُورٌ رَّحِيمٌ

 

 

And Allah is Forgiving and Merciful. (2:218)

 

 

 وَاللَّـهُ رَءُوفٌ بِالْعِبَادِ

 

 

 and Allah is Kind to [His] servants.” (3:30)

 

 

4. Adjective patterns: فَعْلانُ

 

  Examples:

 

  • غَضْبَانُ – angry
  • رَحْمَانُ  – most gracious

 

 

الرَّحْمَـٰنِ الرَّحِيمِ 

 

 

The Entirely Merciful, the Especially Merciful, (1:3)

 

 

فَرَجَعَ مُوسَىٰ إِلَىٰ قَوْمِهِ غَضْبَانَ أَسِفًا

 

 

So Moses returned to his people, angry and grieved (20:86)

 

 

5. Adjectives pattern: فَعَّالٌ

 

  Examples:

 

  • جَبَّارٌ – strong/powerful

 

 

 الْعَزِيزُ الْجَبَّارُ الْمُتَكَبِّرُ

 

 

 the Exalted in Might, the Compeller, the Superior (59:23)

 

 

  The pattern used for colours and defect are:  

 

  • Singular masculine: أَفْعَلُ
  • Singular feminine:  فَعْلاءُ
  • Dual masculine: أَفْعَلانِ
  • Dual feminine: فَعْلَوَانِ
  • Plural masculine: فُعْلٌ
  • Plural feminine:  فُعْلٌ

 

Examples:  

 

 

وَكُلُوا وَاشْرَبُوا حَتَّىٰ يَتَبَيَّنَ لَكُمُ الْخَيْطُ الْأَبْيَضُ مِنَ الْخَيْطِ الْأَسْوَدِ مِنَ الْفَجْرِ

 

 

And eat and drink until the white thread of dawn becomes distinct to you from the black thread [of night].  (2:187)

 

 

 وَاضْمُمْ يَدَكَ إِلَىٰ جَنَاحِكَ تَخْرُجْ بَيْضَاءَ مِنْ غَيْرِ سُوءٍ آيَةً أُخْرَىٰ

 

 

And draw in your hand to your side; it will come out white without disease – another sign, (20:22)

 

 

وَمِنَ الْجِبَالِ جُدَدٌ بِيضٌ وَحُمْرٌ مُّخْتَلِفٌ أَلْوَانُهَا وَغَرَابِيبُ سُودٌ

 

 

And in the mountains are tracts, white and red of varying shades and [some] extremely black. (35:27)

 

 

صُمٌّ بُكْمٌ عُمْيٌ فَهُمْ لَا يَرْجِعُونَ

 

 

Deaf, dumb and blind – so they will not return [to the right path]. (2:18)

 

 

You have now completed this Arabic lesson. The next one will be insha’Allah about the noun for pre-eminence in Arabic.

 

Al-dirassa centre offers you the possibility to study the Arabic language efficiently with a qualified teacher. If you are interested, do not hesitate to consult us.

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