Adjectives are words that describe the quality, colour or defect of the other noun. They are usually derived from intransitive verbs, which note a state or condition rather than an act.


  There are certain patterns to denote an adjective.  


1. فَاعِلٌ – active participle




  • صَالِحٌ – righteous/good
  • عَالِمٌ – knowledgeable
  • عَابِدٌ – worshipper

 وَلَا أَنَا عَابِدٌ مَّا عَبَدتُّمْ



Nor will I be a worshipper of what you worship. (109:4)



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2. Adjectives pattern: فَعِيلٌ




  • كَرِمٌ – noble
  • عَظِيمٌ – great
  • رَحِيمٌ – merciful
  • قَدِيرٌ – powerful



وَاللَّـهُ عَلِيمٌ حَكِيمٌ



 and Allah is Knowing and Wise. (9:15)



لَّهُمْ دَرَجَاتٌ عِندَ رَبِّهِمْ وَمَغْفِرَةٌ وَرِزْقٌ كَرِيمٌ



For them are degrees [of high position] with their Lord and forgiveness and noble provision. (8:4)



3. Adjectives pattern: فَعُولٌ




  • ظَلُومٌ – great wrong-doer
  • غَفُورٌ – forgiver
  • رَءُوفٌ – compassionate

إِنَّ الْإِنسَانَ لَظَلُومٌ كَفَّارٌ



Indeed, humankind is [generally] most unjust and ungrateful. (14:34)



 وَاللَّـهُ غَفُورٌ رَّحِيمٌ



And Allah is Forgiving and Merciful. (2:218)



 وَاللَّـهُ رَءُوفٌ بِالْعِبَادِ



 and Allah is Kind to [His] servants.” (3:30)



4. Adjective patterns: فَعْلانُ




  • غَضْبَانُ – angry
  • رَحْمَانُ  – most gracious



الرَّحْمَـٰنِ الرَّحِيمِ 



The Entirely Merciful, the Especially Merciful, (1:3)



فَرَجَعَ مُوسَىٰ إِلَىٰ قَوْمِهِ غَضْبَانَ أَسِفًا



So Moses returned to his people, angry and grieved (20:86)



5. Adjectives pattern: فَعَّالٌ




  • جَبَّارٌ – strong/powerful



 الْعَزِيزُ الْجَبَّارُ الْمُتَكَبِّرُ



 the Exalted in Might, the Compeller, the Superior (59:23)



  The pattern used for colours and defect are:  


  • Singular masculine: أَفْعَلُ
  • Singular feminine:  فَعْلاءُ
  • Dual masculine: أَفْعَلانِ
  • Dual feminine: فَعْلَوَانِ
  • Plural masculine: فُعْلٌ
  • Plural feminine:  فُعْلٌ





وَكُلُوا وَاشْرَبُوا حَتَّىٰ يَتَبَيَّنَ لَكُمُ الْخَيْطُ الْأَبْيَضُ مِنَ الْخَيْطِ الْأَسْوَدِ مِنَ الْفَجْرِ



And eat and drink until the white thread of dawn becomes distinct to you from the black thread [of night].  (2:187)



 وَاضْمُمْ يَدَكَ إِلَىٰ جَنَاحِكَ تَخْرُجْ بَيْضَاءَ مِنْ غَيْرِ سُوءٍ آيَةً أُخْرَىٰ



And draw in your hand to your side; it will come out white without disease – another sign, (20:22)



وَمِنَ الْجِبَالِ جُدَدٌ بِيضٌ وَحُمْرٌ مُّخْتَلِفٌ أَلْوَانُهَا وَغَرَابِيبُ سُودٌ



And in the mountains are tracts, white and red of varying shades and [some] extremely black. (35:27)



صُمٌّ بُكْمٌ عُمْيٌ فَهُمْ لَا يَرْجِعُونَ



Deaf, dumb and blind – so they will not return [to the right path]. (2:18)



You have now completed this Arabic lesson. The next one will be insha’Allah about the noun for pre-eminence in Arabic.


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