In the Arabic language, the word “qalqala” means restlessness, instability, disturbance.
There are letters in the Arabic alphabet that, when bearing an original or non-original sukoon (the latter is due to a judgment on this letter), undergo al qalqala, a strong bounce of the letter.
This qalqala allows the one who listens to us to distinguish the letter well and to hear it clearly. It is what is called tahqiq al huruf. It is to give each letter its due.
This rule is applied by making the letter of a sound caused by its emission resonate, without a vowel, at its point of articulation by the vocal cords, for the following 5 letters:
د – ج – ب – ط – ق
You can memorize these letters in the sentence: قُطُبُ جَدٍ
Technically, unvocalized letters (with sukoon) should be uttered resounding, until a frank resonance is obtained.
There are 3 types of qalqala:
- The small resonance al qalqala sughra – الْقَلْقَلَةُ الصُّغْرَى
- The average resonance al qalqala kubra – الْقَلْقَلَةُ الْكُبْرَى
- The great resonance al qalqala Akbar – الْقَلْقَلَةُ الْاَكْبَر
The small resonance al qalqala sughra – الْقَلْقَلَةُ الصُّغْرَى
- It occurs when one of the resonating letters is found unvoiced within a word. The degree of vibration is minimum.
لَقَدْ خَلَقْنَا الْإِنسَانَ فِي أَحْسَنِ تَقْوِيمٍ
We have certainly created man in the best of stature; (95:4)
- Or at the end of a word but in conjunction with the next word.
لَمْ يَلِدْ وَلَمْ يُولَدْ
He neither begets nor is born (112:3)
The average resonance al qalqala kubra – الْقَلْقَلَةُ الْكُبْرَى
It occurs when resonating letters are found unvoiced at the end of a word during a pause or stop.
The resonance of this letter will then be more important. The degree of vibration is medium.
قُلْ هُوَ اللَّـهُ أَحَدٌ
Say, “He is Allah, [who is] One, (112:01)
The great resonance al qalqala Akbar – الْقَلْقَلَةُ الْاَكْبَر
It occurs when the resonating letter is at the end of a word at a pause or a stop, and it is mushadid with a shadda.
The letter is then recited with a strong resonance with the shadda. The degree of vibration is then maximum.
تَبَّتْ يَدَا أَبِي لَهَبٍ وَتَبَّ
May the hands of Abu Lahab be ruined, and ruined, is he. (111:1)