An nabr is a slight elevation of the voice and can be distinguished in 5 forms: When you have a madd al lazeem (extension followed by a shedda)
1. When a shedda prolongates a prolongation madd al Lazeem and
When we raise our voice slightly, if we stop on the word. The ulemas have established this rule to avoid making a ghunna on the letter following the prolongation – madd.
صِرَاطَ الَّذِينَ أَنْعَمْتَ عَلَيْهِمْ غَيْرِ الْمَغْضُوبِ عَلَيْهِمْ وَلَا الضَّالِّينَ
The path of those upon whom You have bestowed favour, not of those who have evoked [Your] anger or of those who are astray. (1:7)
قُلْ أَتُحَاجُّونَنَا فِي اللَّهِ وَهُوَ رَبُّنَا وَرَبُّكُمْ
Say, [O Muhammad], “Do you argue with us about Allah while He is our Lord and your Lord? (2:139)
The Inevitable Reality – (69:1)
2. When we have a word that ends in hamza ء and that we stop on, or we take a break
We do an nabr to mark the hamza ء; otherwise, we risk overemphasizing the hamza ء and doing a qalqala over it or not saying the hamza at all ء.
وَأَنزَلَ مِنَ السَّمَاءِ مَاءً فَأَخْرَجَ بِهِ مِنَ الثَّمَرَاتِ رِزْقًا لَّكُمْ
and sent down from the sky, rain and brought forth thereby fruits as provision for you. (2:22)
قَالَ سَآوِي إِلَىٰ جَبَلٍ يَعْصِمُنِي مِنَ الْمَاءِ
[But] he said, “I will take refuge on a mountain to protect me from the water.” (11:43)
قَالُوا أَنُؤْمِنُ كَمَا آمَنَ السُّفَهَاءُ
” they say, “Should we believe as the foolish have believed?” (2:13)
وَلِيَعْلَمَ اللَّهُ الَّذِينَ آمَنُوا وَيَتَّخِذَ مِنكُمْ شُهَدَاءَ
Allah may make evident those who believe and [may] take to Himself from among you martyrs (3:140)
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3. When the last letter we stop at or take a break, is shadda We do an nabr to mark the doubling of the last letter.
لِّكُلِّ نَبَإٍ مُّسْتَقَرٌّ ۚ
For every happening is a finality; (6:67)
إِلَّا الَّذِينَ آمَنُوا وَعَمِلُوا الصَّالِحَاتِ وَتَوَاصَوْا بِالْحَقِّ وَتَوَاصَوْا بِالصَّبْرِ
Except for those who have believed and done righteous deeds and advised each other to truth and advised each other to patience. (103:3)
يَسْأَلُونَكَ عَنِ الْأَهِلَّةِ ۖ قُلْ هِيَ مَوَاقِيتُ لِلنَّاسِ وَالْحَجِّ
They ask you, [O Muhammad], about the new moons. Say, “They are measurements of time for the people and for Hajj.” (2:189)
تَبَّتْ يَدَا أَبِي لَهَبٍ وَتَبَّ
May the hands of Abu Lahab be ruined, and ruined is he. (111:1)
4. When the letter ي or the letter و are with a shadda
إِيَّاكَ نَعْبُدُ وَإِيَّاكَ نَسْتَعِينُ
It is You we worship and You we ask for help. (1:5)
اللَّهُ وَلِيُّ الَّذِينَ آمَنُوا يُخْرِجُهُم مِّنَ الظُّلُمَاتِ إِلَى النُّورِ
Allah is the ally of those who believe. He brings them out from darknesses into the light. (2:257)
إِنَّ الشَّيْطَانَ لِلْإِنسَانِ عَدُوٌّ مُّبِينٌ
Indeed Satan, to man, is a manifest enemy. (12:5)
5. When there is the alif ا at the end of a conjugated dual or plural verb
When there are 2 consecutive sukoon, the rule is that we remove the madd (extension), but to mark the deletion of this alif ا, we do an nabr to avoid making a ghunna while keeping the meaning of the verse and also, so that the person listening knows that there is a deletion of the alif. Otherwise, there may be confusion with this same verb conjugated in the 3rd person.
Example: قَالا pronounced without making an nabr is: قَالَ which is then the 3rd person singular, then the meaning of the verse is totally changed for the person who listens to the recitation
حَتَّىٰ أَتَانَا الْيَقِينُ
Until there came to us the certainty.” (74:74)
وَقَالَا الْحَمْدُ لِلَّهِ الَّذِي فَضَّلَنَا عَلَىٰ كَثِيرٍ مِّنْ عِبَادِهِ الْمُؤْمِنِينَ
and they said, “Praise [is due] to Allah, who has favoured us over many of His believing servants.” (27:15)
فَلَمَّا ذَاقَا الشَّجَرَةَ بَدَتْ لَهُمَا سَوْآتُهُمَا
And when they tasted of the tree, their private parts became apparent to them (7:22)
وَاسْتَبَقَا الْبَابَ وَقَدَّتْ قَمِيصَهُ مِن دُبُرٍ وَأَلْفَيَا سَيِّدَهَا لَدَى الْبَابِ
And they both raced to the door, and she tore his shirt from the back, and they found her husband at the door. (12:25)
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