الإِعْرَابُ - declension of a noun | Arabic free course

Introduction

 

 

In Arabic, declension is called الإِعْرَابُ, which we dealt with briefly in the second chapter. Based on the الإِعْرَابُ, nouns are divided into two groups. Incedclinable – الْمَبْنِي and declinable الْمُعْرَبُ.

 

 

Indeclinable nouns – الْمَبْنِي

 

 

A noun whose final vowel is static is said to be الْمَبْنِي, i.e. the harakah on the last letter of the noun does not change in the nominative, accusative or genitive case.

 

  Nouns that are indeclinable are:  

 

  1. All forms of pronouns such as أَنا – أَنْتَ – هُمْ – هُمَا – هُوَ. Past tense verbs that have pronouns like أَنْتَ, أَنَا hidden in them such as ضَرَبْتَ, أَكَلْتُ are also indeclinable.
  2. Particles of interrogation, prepositions, jussive and subjunctive particles like: هَلْ/أَيْنَ, مِنْ/فِي, إِنْ/لَمْ, لَنْ/حَتَّى etc.
    • Relative and demonstrative pronouns like تِلْكَ, الَّذِي, الَّذِيْنَ, أُولَئِكَ etc.
    • Nouns ending with alif ا but spelt with the ending ى like مُوْسَى and عِيْسَى. This kind of alif is called الأَلِفُ الْمَقْصُوْرَةُ. Other example includes كُبْرَى, بُشْرَى, هُدَى.

 

  Examples:

 

ذَٰلِكَ الْكِتَابُ لَا رَيْبَ ۛ فِيهِ ۛ هُدًى لِّلْمُتَّقِينَ

 

 

This is the Book about which there is no doubt, a guidance for those conscious of Allah  (2:2)

 

 

قَالَ أَلْقِهَا يَا مُوسَىٰ

 

 

[Allah] said, “Throw it down, O Moses.” (20:19)

 

 

فَلَا تَقْعُدْ بَعْدَ الذِّكْرَىٰ مَعَ الْقَوْمِ الظَّالِمِينَ

 

 

then do not remain after the reminder with the wrongdoing people. (6:68)

 

 

لَقَدْ رَأَىٰ مِنْ آيَاتِ رَبِّهِ الْكُبْرَىٰ

 

 

He certainly saw of the greatest signs of his Lord. (53:18)

 

 

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Declinable nouns – الْمُعْرَبُ

 

 

  • A declined noun is said to be الْمُعْرَبُ i.e. changeable. They are of two types:

 

  1. الْمُنْصَرِفُ
  2. الْمَمْنُوعُ مِنَ الصَّرْفِ

 

  • Nouns which are الْمُنْصَرفُ are fully changeable and display the case they are in, by الإِعرَابُ بِالحَرَكَةِ or الإِعْرَابُ بِالحُرُوفِ. These are called triptotes. مُسْلِمٌ and خَادِمٌ.

 

  • Nouns which are المَمْنُوع من الصَّرْفِ are partly changeable and are called diptotes. Most proper names of non-Arabic origin, whether personal or geographical and adjectives denoting colours are diptotes. Examples: أَسْوَدُ – أَحْمَرُ – إِبْرَاهِيمُ – داوُودُ – هَارُوتُ – ثَمُودُ – غَضْبَانُ – فِرْعَوْنَ

 

  • Nouns of this kind will never bear tanwin or kasrah.

 

Examples:  

 

قَالَ الْمَلَأُ مِن قَوْمِ فِرْعَوْنَ إِنَّ هَـٰذَا لَسَاحِرٌ عَلِيمٌ

 

 

Said the eminent among the people of Pharaoh, “Indeed, this is a learned magician (7:109)

 

 

قُلْ بَلْ مِلَّةَ إِبْرَاهِيمَ حَنِيفًا

 

 

Rather, [we follow] the religion of Abraham, inclining toward truth, (2:135)

 

 

وَإِذْ يَرْفَعُ إِبْرَاهِيمُ الْقَوَاعِدَ مِنَ الْبَيْتِ وَإِسْمَاعِيلُ رَبَّنَا تَقَبَّلْ مِنَّا

 

 

And [mention] when Abraham was raising the foundations of the House and [with him] Ishmael, [saying], “Our Lord, accept [this] from us. (2:127)

 

 

اذْهَبْ إِلَىٰ فِرْعَوْنَ إِنَّهُ طَغَىٰ 

 

 

“Go to Pharaoh. Indeed, he has transgressed. (79:17)

 

 

وَقَتَلَ دَاوُودُ جَالُوتَ

 

 

and David killed Goliath (2:251)

 

 

قَالَ إِنَّهُ يَقُولُ إِنَّهَا بَقَرَةٌ صَفْرَاءُ فَاقِعٌ لَّوْنُهَا تَسُرُّ النَّاظِرِينَ

 

 

 He said, “He says, ‘It is a yellow cow, bright in color – pleasing to the observers.’ “ (2:69)

 

 

 بِرَسُولٍ يَأْتِي مِن بَعْدِي اسْمُهُ أَحْمَدُ

 

 

of a messenger to come after me, whose name is Ahmad. (61:6)

 

 

You have now completed this Arabic lesson. The next one will be insha’Allah about the exception – الاسْتِثْنَاءُ.

 

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  1. […] You have now completed this Arabic lesson. The next one will be insha’Allah about introducing the declension of a noun. […]


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