Some nouns are such that their three states (nominative, accusative and genitive) are denoted by letters. They are called the five magnified nouns in Arabic – الْأَسْمَاءُ الخَمْسَةُ المُكَبَّرَةُ.

 

  • The nominative- المرفوع: is denoted by و
  • The accusative المَنصوب: is denoted by ا
  • the genitive المَجْرُور: is denoted by ى

 

The following five nouns show these states:

The magnified noun أَبٌ – father

 

  • nominative: أَبُوْ
  • accusative: أَبَا
  • genitive: أَبِي

The magnified noun أَخٌ – brother

 

  • nominative: أَخُوْ
  • accusative: أَخَا
  • genitive: أَخِي

The magnified noun حَمٌ – father in law

 

  • nominative: حَمُوْ
  • accusative: حَمَا
  • genitive: حَمِيْ

The magnified noun فَمٌ – mouth

 

  • nominative: فَوْ
  • accusative: فَا
  • genitive: فِيْ

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The magnified noun ذَوُ – endowed with / owner of

 

 

  • nominative: ذُوْ
  • accusative: ذَا
  • genitive: ذِيْ
  •  

  The form حَمٌ is not used in the Holy Quran. In addition to the above general form, ذُوْ has additional forms for duals and plurals in masculine and feminine. they are seen in the following table:  

 

  • Nominative singular: ذُوْ
  • Nominative dual:  ذَوَا
  • Nominative plural: أُولُوْا

 

 

  • Accusative singular: ذَا
  • Accusative dual: ذَوَى
  • Accusative plural: أُوْلِي

 

 

  • Genitive singular: ذِيْ
  • Genitive dual: ذَوَى
  • Genitive plural: أُوْلِي

 

the following table shows the usage of ذَاتَ:  

 

  • Nominative singular: ذَاتُ
  • Nominative dual:  ذَوَاتَا
  • Nominative plural: أُولاتُ

 

  • Accusative singular: ذَاتّ
  • Accusative dual: ذَوَاتَى
  • Accusative plural: أُولاتِ

 

  • Genitive singular: ذَاتِ
  • Genitive dual: ذَوَاتِي
  • Genitive plural: أولاتِ

 

 

The general meaning of ذَوٌ can be described as the owner of/ endowed with. But in some cases, they may give a different meaning.

Examples:

وَنُقَلِّبُهُمْ ذَاتَ الْيَمِينِ وَذَاتَ الشِّمَالِ

 

 

And We turned them to the right and to the left (18:18)

 

وَإِن كَانَ ذُو عُسْرَةٍ فَنَظِرَةٌ إِلَىٰ مَيْسَرَةٍ

 

 

And if someone is in hardship, then [let there be] postponement until [a time of] ease. (2:280)

 

Examples of Magnified Nouns – الأسْمَاءُ المُكَبَّرَةُ used in the Holy Quran

 

وَأَبُونَا شَيْخٌ كَبِيرٌ 

 

 

 and our father is an old man.” (28:23)

 

 

وَوَرِثَهُ أَبَوَاهُ

 

 

and the parents [alone] inherit from him (4:11)

 

 

وَرَفَعَ أَبَوَيْهِ عَلَى الْعَرْشِ

 

 

And he raised his parents upon the throne (12:100)

 

 

وَجَاءُوا أَبَاهُمْ عِشَاءً يَبْكُونَ 

 

 

And they came to their father at night, weeping. (12:16)

 

 

تَبَّتْ يَدَا أَبِي لَهَبٍ وَتَبَّ

 

 

May the hands of Abu Lahab be ruined, and ruined, is he. (111:1)

 

 

وَاذْكُرْ أَخَا عَادٍ

 

 

And mention, [O Muhammad], the brother of ‘Aad (46:21) 

 

 

لِيُرِيَهُ كَيْفَ يُوَارِي سَوْءَةَ أَخِيهِ

 

 

to show him how to hide the disgrace of his brother (5:31)

 

 

 إِذْ قَالَ لَهُمْ أَخُوهُمْ نُوحٌ أَلَا تَتَّقُونَ

 

 

When their brother Noah said to them, “Will you not fear Allah? (26:106)

 

 

كَفَّيْهِ إِلَى الْمَاءِ لِيَبْلُغَ فَاهُ وَمَا هُوَ بِبَالِغِهِ

 

 

except as one who stretches his hands toward water [from afar, calling it] to reach his mouth, but it will not reach it [thus]. (13:14)

 

 

وَاللَّـهُ ذُو الْفَضْلِ الْعَظِيمِ 

 

 

and Allah is the possessor of great bounty. (2:105)

 

 

يَحْكُمُ بِهِ ذَوَا عَدْلٍ مِّنكُمْ

 

 

as judged by two just men among you (5:95)

 

 

ذَوَاتَا أَفْنَانٍ

 

 

Having [spreading] branches. (55:48)

 

 

وَبِالْوَالِدَيْنِ إِحْسَانًا وَذِي الْقُرْبَىٰ

 

 

and to parents do good and to relatives, (2:83)

 

 

وَحَمَلْنَاهُ عَلَىٰ ذَاتِ أَلْوَاحٍ وَدُسُرٍ 

 

 

And We carried him on a [construction of] planks and nails (54:13)

 

 

وَإِن كُنَّ أُولَاتِ حَمْلٍ

 

 

And if they should be pregnant (65:6)

 

 

وَأُولَاتُ الْأَحْمَالِ أَجَلُهُنَّ أَن يَضَعْنَ حَمْلَهُنّ

 

 

And for those who are pregnant, their term is until they give birth.  (65:4)

 

 

تَبَارَكَ اسْمُ رَبِّكَ ذِي الْجَلَالِ وَالْإِكْرَامِ

 

 

Blessed is the name of your Lord, Owner of Majesty and Honor. (55:78)

 

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