Moods of the imperfect tense - Arabic free course

Introduction

 

The subjunctive mood  – اَلْمُضارِعُ الْمَنْصُوبُ and the jussive moods – الْمُضارِعُ المَجْزُومُ changes the imperfect tense.

 

When a particle such as انْ (that) precedes the simple, imperfect tense يَفْعَلُ (he does/will do), it changes the case ending of the imperfect verb to fatha or nasab. The meaning differs from what it has in its absolute case. This is the subjunctive mood of the verb.

 

For example:

 

أَنْ يَفْعَلَ

That he does/will do

 

 

Similarly, if a particle such as ْإِن (if) precedes the simple, imperfect tense يَفْعَلُ (he does/will do), it will change the case ending of the imperfect verb to sukoon or jazm, and the meaning will differ from its absolute case. this is the jussive mood of the verb.

 

إِنْ يَفْعَلْ

If he does/will do

 

 

These two forms of the imperfect tense, the subjunctive, and jussive moods can be made by slight changes to the imperfect tense verb.

 

 

1. The Subjunctive اَلْمُضارِعُ الْمَنْصُوبُ

 

The subjunctive mood  - moods of the imperfect tense

The prefixes particles – الْحُرُوفُ النَّاصِبَةُ change the mood of the imperfect tense to the subjunctive. They are listed below:

 

الْحُرُوفُ النَّاصِبَةُ 

 

لَنْ

will never

 

 أَلَّا = أَنْ + لَا

that that not

 

كَيْ كَيْلَا = لا + كَيْ

So that So that not

 

حَتَّى

Until

 

لِ

So that/ in order to

 

إِذَنْ

Therefore/then

 

Below is a table demonstrating, he of أَنْ on the imperfect tense يَفْعَلُ:

 

 

3rd person masculine

 

Singular 

أَنْ يَفْعَلَ

that he does/will do

Dual

أَنْ يَفْعَلَا

that they both do/will do

Plural

أَنْ يَفْعَلُوا

That they all do/will do

 

3rd person feminine

 

Singular 

أَنْ تَفْعَلَ

that she does/will do

Dual

أَنْ تَفْعَلَا

that they both do/will do

Plural

أَنْ يَفْعَلْنَ

That they all do/will do

 

 

2nd person masculine

 

Singular 

أَنْ تَفْعَلَ

that you do/will do

Dual

أَنْ تَفْعَلَا

that you both do/will do

Plural

أَنْ تَفْعَلُوا

That you all do/will do

 

 

2nd person feminine

 

Singular 

أَنْ تَفْعَلِي

that you do/will do

Dual

أَنْ تَفْعَلَا

that you both do/will do

Plural

أَنْ تَفْعَلْنَ

That you all do/will do

 

First-person (masculine/feminine)

 

Singular 

أَنْ أَفْعَلَ

that I do/will do

Dual

Plural

أَنْ نَفْعَلَ

That we all do/will do

 

 

Point to note from the above table:  

 

The fatha which is evident in the imperfect tense is seen only on the singular third person masculine and feminine, the singular second person masculine, and on the first person singular and plural i.e., يَفْعَلَ, تَفْعَلَ, أَفْعَلَ, نَفْعَلَ. For all other forms, the ن of the duals and plurals are dropped except in the feminine plurals.

 

 

Examples of the subjunctive mood used in the Holy Quran

 

أَن – that

 

لَا تُخْرِجُوهُنَّ مِن بُيُوتِهِنَّ وَلَا يَخْرُجْنَ إِلَّا أَن يَأْتِينَ بِفَاحِشَةٍ مُّبَيِّنَةٍ

nor should they [themselves] leave [during that period] unless they are committing a clear immorality. (65:1)

 

Note: as يَأْتِينَ is feminine plural, the ن  is not dropped.  

 

كَبُرَ مَقْتًا عِندَ اللَّـهِ أَن تَقُولُوا مَا لَا تَفْعَلُونَ

Great is hatred in the sight of Allah that you say what you do not do. (61:3)

 

Note: the ن is dropped from تَقُولُوا  due to the addition of اَنْ  

 

أَلَّا = أَنْ + لَا – that not

 

أَلَّا تَخَافُوا وَلَا تَحْزَنُوا وَأَبْشِرُوا بِالْجَنَّةِ الَّتِي كُنتُمْ تُوعَدُونَ

“Do not fear and do not grieve but receive good tidings of Paradise, which you were promised. (41:30)

 

لِ + اَنْ = لِأَنْ – for that

 

 

وَأُمِرْتُ لِأَنْ أَكُونَ أَوَّلَ الْمُسْلِمِينَ

And I have been commanded to be the first [among you] of the Muslims.” (39:12)

 

 

لَن

 

 

It gives the meaning of will never and is a strong negation of the future. When لَنْ is prefixed to the imperfect tense, it will indicate the future tense. For example:

فَلَن يَغْفِرَ اللَّـهُ لَهُمْ

never will Allah forgive them (9:80)

 

 

كَي – in order to

 

 

كَيْ نُسَبِّحَكَ كَثِيرًا

That we may exalt You much (20:33)

 

كَيْلا – so that not/in order not to

 

 

كَيْ لَا يَكُونَ دُولَةً بَيْنَ الْأَغْنِيَاءِ مِنكُمْكَ

so that it will not be a perpetual distribution among the rich from among you. (59:7)

 

لِكَيْلا – so that not

 

 لِكَيْ لَا يَعْلَمَ بَعْدَ عِلْمٍ شَيْئًا

so that he will not know, after [having had] knowledge, a thing. (16:70)

 

حَتَّى – until

 

وَلَا تَقْرَبُوهُنَّ حَتَّىٰ يَطْهُرْنَ

And do not approach them until they are pure. (2:22)

 

لِ – so that

 

 وَأَلْقَيْتُ عَلَيْكَ مَحَبَّةً مِّنِّي وَلِتُصْنَعَ عَلَىٰ عَيْنِي

And I bestowed upon you love from Me that you would be brought up under My eye (20:39)

 

لِ + أَلّا = لِئَلّا – so that not

 

لِّئَلَّا يَعْلَمَ أَهْلُ الْكِتَابِ أَلَّا يَقْدِرُونَ عَلَىٰ شَيْءٍ مِّن فَضْلِ اللَّـهِ ۙ وَأَنَّ الْفَضْلَ بِيَدِ اللَّـهِ يُؤْتِيهِ مَن يَشَاءُ

[This is] so that the People of the Scripture may know that they are not able [to obtain] anything from the bounty of Allah and that [all] bounty is in the hand of Allah; He gives it to whom He wills.  (57:29)

 

2. The jussive case – mood of the imperfect tense

 

the jussive case | arabic free courses

 

Introduction

 

The prefixed particles, which are called الْحُرُوفُ الْجازِمَةُ change the mood of the imperfect tense to the jussive case where the final radical takes a sukoon or jazm. these are listed below:

 

الْحُرُوفُ الْجازِمَةُ

 

لَمْ

was not/did not

 

 

لَمَّا

not yet

 

 

إِنْ

if

 

 

 

لِ

should

 

 

لَا

do not/should not

 

 

 

 

Table with the jussive case:  إِنْ يَفْعَلَ

 

 

3rd person masculine

 

Singular

إِنْ يَفْعَلْ

If he does/will do

 

Dual

إِنْ يَفْعَلَا

If they both do/will do

 

Plural

إِنْ يَفْعَلُوا

If they all do/will do

 

 

 

3rd person feminine

 

Singular

إِنْ تَفْعَلْ

If she does/will do

 

Dual

إِنْ تَفْعَلَا

If they both do/will do

 

Plural

إِنْ يَفْعَلْنَ

If they all do/will do

 

 

 

 

2nd person masculine

 

Singular

إِنْ تَفْعَلْ

If you do/will do

 

Dual

إِنْ تَفْعَلَا

If you both do/will do

 

Plural

إِنْ تَفْعَلُوا

If you all do/will do

 

 

 

 

2nd person feminine

 

Singular

إِنْ تَفْعَلِي

If you do/will do

 

Dual

إِنْ تَفْعَلا

If you both do/will do

 

Plural

إِنْ تَفْعَلْنَ

If you all do/will do

 

 

 

 

First-person (masculine/feminine)

 

Singular

إِنْ أَفْعَلْ

If I do/will do

 

Dual

 

Plural

إِنْ نَفْعَلْ

If we do/will do

 

 

 

 

Point to note from the above table:

 

The sukoon which is evident in the imperfect is seen only on the singular third person and second person masculine and feminine and on the first person singular and plural, i.e., يَفْعَلْ, تَفْعَلْ, أَفْعَلْ, نَفْعَلْ.

 

For all other forms, the ن of duals and plurals are dropped as in the subjunctive, except in the case of feminine plurals.

 

 

The prefixed particles of the jussive case

 

 

لَمْ – was not/did not

 

 

It is used to deny a statement. It changes the present future tense to past tense.

 

 

يَا زَكَرِيَّا إِنَّا نُبَشِّرُكَ بِغُلَامٍ اسْمُهُ يَحْيَىٰ لَمْ نَجْعَل لَّهُ مِن قَبْلُ سَمِيًّا 

 

 

[He was told], “O Zechariah, indeed We give you good tidings of a boy whose name will be John. We have not assigned to any before [this] name.” (19:7)

 

 

لَمَّ – not yet

 

 

وَآخَرِينَ مِنْهُمْ لَمَّا يَلْحَقُوا بِهِمْ ۚ وَهُوَ الْعَزِيزُ الْحَكِيمُ 

 

 

And [to] others of them who have not yet joined them. And He is the Exalted in Might, the Wise. (62:3)

 

 

وَلَمَّا يَدْخُلِ الْإِيمَانُ فِي قُلُوبِكُمْ

 

 

for faith has not yet entered your hearts (49:14)

 

In the above example, we see that لَمْ of يَدْخُلْ bears kasrah on it (instead of sukoon. The general rule is that sukoon is changed to kasrah to join the following letter.

 

  Note: When the imperfect tense follows لَمَّا, it gives the meaning of not yet. When it comes before the past tense, it means “when” without any effect on the harakah of the past tense.

 

 

فَلَمَّا فَصَلَ طَالُوتُ بِالْجُنُودِ

 

 

And when Saul went forth with the soldiers, (2:249)

 

 

إِنْ – if

 

 

It is a conditional particle and gives the meaning of “if.” It usually comes at the beginning of a conditional sentence and is followed by two imperfect verbs in the jussive case.

 

 

 

يَا أَيُّهَا الَّذِينَ آمَنُوا إِن تَنصُرُوا اللَّـهَ يَنصُرْكُمْ وَيُثَبِّتْ أَقْدَامَكُمْ

 

 

O you who have believed, if you support Allah, He will support you and plant your feet firmly. (47:7)

 

 

It can also come along with لَا. For example:

 

 

إِنْ + لَا = إِلَّا – if not/unless

 

 

وَإِلَّا تَغْفِرْ لِي وَتَرْحَمْنِي أَكُن مِّنَ الْخَاسِرِينَ

 

 

And unless You forgive me and have mercy upon me, I will be among the losers.” (11:47)

 

 

لِ – should

 

 

it is also called “lam of command لَمْ الْأَمْرُ.” We will deal with this detail in the imperative form.

 

 

لِيُنفِقْ ذُو سَعَةٍ مِّن سَعَتِهِ ۖ وَمَن قُدِرَ عَلَيْهِ رِزْقُهُ فَلْيُنفِقْ مِمَّا آتَاهُ اللَّـهُ ۚ لَا يُكَلِّفُ اللَّـهُ نَفْسًا إِلَّا مَا آتَاهَا ۚ سَيَجْعَلُ اللَّـهُ بَعْدَ عُسْرٍ يُسْرًا

 

 

Let a man of wealth spend from his wealth, and he whose provision is restricted – let him spend from what Allah has given him. Allah does not charge a soul except [according to] what He has given it. Allah will bring about, after hardship, ease. (65:7)

 

 

 

لَا- The particle of prohibition

 

 

This is the particle of prohibition and is also called لا ناهِيَة. It is used with the second person imperfect tense to give a negative command.

 

وَلَا تَقُولُوا لِمَن يُقْتَلُ فِي سَبِيلِ اللَّـهِ أَمْوَاتٌ ۚ بَلْ أَحْيَاءٌ وَلَـٰكِن لَّا تَشْعُرُونَ 

 

 

And do not say about those who are killed in the way of Allah, “They are dead.” Rather, they are alive, but you perceive [it] not. (2:154)

 

 

There is one more لَا named لَا النَّافِيَة, which is used for negation and means “no.” This لا will not affect the verb that follows it. It is just used as a statement.

 

 

لَّا يُؤَاخِذُكُمُ اللَّـهُ بِاللَّغْوِ فِي أَيْمَانِكُمْ

 

 

Allah does not impose blame upon you for what is unintentional in your oaths, (2:225)

 

 

لَا يُكَلِّفُ اللَّـهُ نَفْسًا إِلَّا مَا آتَاهَا

 

 

Allah does not charge a soul except [according to] what He has given it. (65:7)

 

 

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3. The jussive hollow verbs – moods of the imperfect tense

 

jussive case - hollow verbs - weak verbs - Arabic free courses  

 

Introduction

 

In this lesson, we are going to study the hollow verbs when prefixed with the jussive case.   Assimilated verbs on the pattern of وَعَدَ and يَسِرَ and hamzated verbs will change when prefixed with حروف الجازمة with the same effect as that of the basic consonant pattern فَعَلَ.  

 

Hollow verbs on the pattern of قَالَ  and بَاعَ will undergo the following change:

 

 

3rd person masculine

 

Singular

لَمْ يَقُلْ

If he did not say

 

Dual

لَمْ يَقُولَا

If they both did not say

 

Plural

لَمْ يَقُولُوْا

If they all did not say

 

 

 

 

3rd person feminine

 

Singular

لَمْ تَقُلْ

If she did not say

 

Dual

لَمْ تَقُولَا

If they both did not say

 

Plural

لَمْ يَقُلْنَ

If they all did not say

 

 

 

 

2nd person masculine

 

Singular

لَمْ تَقُلْ

If you did not say

 

Dual

لَمْ تَقُولَا

If you both did not say

 

Plural

لَمْ تَقُولُوْا

If you all did not say

 

 

 

 

2nd person feminine

 

Singular

لَمْ تَقُولِيْ

If you did not say

 

Dual

لَمْ تَقُولَا

If you both did not say

 

Plural

لَمْ تَقُلْنَ

If you all did not say

 

 

 

 

First-person (masculine/feminine)

 

Singular

لَمْ أقُلْ

If I did not say

 

Dual

 

Plural

لَمْ نَقُلْ

If We did not say

 

 

 

 

Table for the hollow verb لَمْ يَبِعْ

 

 

3rd person masculine

 

Singular

لَمْ يَبِعْ

If he did not sell

 

Dual

لَمْ يَبِيْعَا

If they both did not sell

 

Plural

لَمْ يَبِيْعُوْا

If they all did not sell

 

 

 

 

 

3rd person feminine

 

Singular

لَمْ تَبِعْ

If she did not sell

 

Dual

لَمْ تَبِيْعَا

If they both did not sell

 

Plural

لَمْ يَبِعْنَ

If they all did not sell

 

 

 

 

2nd person masculine

 

Singular

لَمْ تَبِعْ

If you did not sell

 

Dual

لَمْ تَبِيْعَا

If you both did not sell

 

Plural

لَمْ تَبِيْعُوْا

If you all did not sell

 

 

 

 

2nd person feminine

 

Singular

لَمْ يَبِيْعِي

If you did not sell

 

Dual

لَمْ تَبِيْعَا

If you both did not sell

 

Plural

لَمْ تَبِعْنَ

If you all did not sell

 

 

First-person (masculine/feminine)

 

Singular

لَمْ أَبِعْ

If I did not sell

 

Dual

 

Plural

لَمْ نَبِعْ

If we did not sell

 

 

 

 

In the table above, we see that و and ى  are dropped in the third person masculine and feminine singular, the second person masculine and first-person singular because the last letter is made sakin . Two sukoons cannot appear together, and therefore, the weak letter is dropped. The remaining pattern, however, will have the و  and the ى respectively, in the conjugation.

 

 

Defective verbs on the patterns of دَعَا – رَمَى and لَقِيَ will have the following changes in their conjugation when prefixed with حروف الجازمة.

 

 

Table for the hollow verb لَمْ يَدْعُ

 

 

3rd person masculine

 

Singular

لَمْ يَدْعُ

If he did not call

 

Dual

لَمْ يَدْعُوَا

If they both did not call

 

Plural

لَمْ يَدْعُوْا

If they all did not call

 

 

 

 

3rd person feminine

 

Singular

لَمْ تَدْعُ

If she did not call

 

Dual

لَمْ تَدْعُوَا

If they both did not call

 

Plural

لَمْ يَدْعُوْنَ

If they all did not call

 

 

 

 

2nd person masculine

 

Singular

لَمْ تَدْعُ

If you did not call

 

Dual

لَمْ تَدْعُوَا

If you both did not call

 

Plural

لَمْ تَدْعُوْا

If you all did not call

 

 

 

 

2nd person feminine

 

Singular

لَمْ تَدْعِي

If you did not call

 

Dual

لَمْ تَدْعُوَا

If you both did not call

 

Plural

لَمْ تَدْعُوْنَ

If you all did not call

 

 

 

 

 

First-person (masculine/feminine)

 

Singular

لَمْ أَدْعُ

If I did not call

 

Dual

 

Plural

لَمْ نَدْعُ

If we did not call

 

 

 

 

Table for the hollow verb لَمْ يَرْمِ

 

 

3rd person masculine

 

Singular

لَمْ يَرْمِ

If he did not throw

 

Dual

لَمْ يَرْمِيَا

If they both did not throw

 

Plural

لَمْ يَرْمُوْا

If they all did not throw

 

 

 

 

 

3rd person feminine

 

Singular

لَمْ تَرْمِ

If she did not throw

 

Dual

لَمْ تَرْمِيَا

If they both did not throw

 

Plural

لَمْ يَرْمِيْنَ

If they all did not throw

 

 

 

 

2nd person masculine

 

Singular

لَمْ تَرْمِ

If you did not throw

 

Dual

لَمْ تَرْمِيَا

If you both did not throw

 

Plural

لَمْ تَرْمُوْا

If you all did not throw

 

 

 

 

2nd person feminine

 

 

Singular

لَمْ تَرْمِي

If you did not throw

 

Dual

لَمْ تَرْمِيَا

If you both did not throw

 

Plural

لَمْ تَرْمِيْنَ

If you all did not throw

 

 

 

 

 

First-person (masculine/feminine)

 

Singular

لَمْ أَرْمِ

If I did not throw

 

Dual

 

Plural

لَمْ نَرْمِ

If we did not throw

 

 

 

 

Table for the hollow verb لَمْ يَلْقَ

 

 

3rd person masculine

 

Singular

لَمْ يَلْقَ

If he did not meet

 

Dual

لَمْ يَلْقَيَا

If they both did not meet

 

Plural

لَمْ يَلْقَوْا

If they all did not meet

 

 

 

 

3rd person feminine

 

Singular

لَمْ تَلْقَ

If she did not meet

 

Dual

لَمْ تَلْقَيَا

If they both did not meet

 

Plural

لَمْ يَلْقَيْنَ

If they all did not meet

 

 

 

 

2nd person masculine

 

 

Singular

لَمْ تَلْقَ

If you did not meet

 

Dual

لَمْ تَلْقَيَا

If you both did not meet

 

Plural

لَمْ تَلْقَوْا

If you all did not meet

 

 

 

 

 

2nd person feminine

 

 

Singular

لَمْ تَلْقِي

If you did not meet

 

Dual

لَمْ تَلْقَيَا

If you both did not meet

 

Plural

لَمْ تَلْقَيْنَ

If you all did not meet

 

 

 

 

First-person (masculine/feminine)

 

Singular

لَمْ أَلْقَ

If I did not meet

 

Dual

 

Plural

لَمْ نَلْقَ

If we did not meet

 

 

 

 

In the hollow verbs, we see that و and ى are dropped in the third person masculine and feminine singular, the second person masculine, and in the first person singular and plural. The remaining pattern will have the و and ى, respectively, in the conjugation.

 

 

Double lettered verb- الْمُضاعَفُ

 

 

The change in pattern is as follows: Table of ظَنَّ – لَمْ يَظْنُنْ

 

 

3rd person masculine

 

Singular

لَمْ يَظْنُنْ

If he did not think

 

Dual

لَمْ يَظُنَّا

If they both did not think

 

Plural

لَمْ يَظْنُّوْا

If they all did not think

 

 

 

 

3rd person feminine

 

 

Singular

لَمْ تَظْنُنْ

If she did not think

 

Dual

لَمْ تَظُنَّا

If they both did not think

 

Plural

لَمْ يَظْنُنَّ

If they all did not think

 

 

 

 

2nd person masculine

 

 

Singular

لَمْ تَظُنُنْ

If you did not think

 

Dual

لَمْ تَظُنَّا

If you both did not think

 

Plural

لَمْ تَظُنُّوا

If you all did not think

 

 

 

 

2nd person feminine

 

Singular

لَمْ تَظُنِّي

If you did not think

 

Dual

لَمْ تَظُنَّا

If you both did not think

 

Plural

لَمْ تَظْنُنَّ

If you all did not think

 

 

 

 

First-person (masculine/feminine)

 

Singular

لَمْ أَظْنُنْ

If I did not think

 

Dual

 

Plural

لَمْ نَظْنُنْ

If we did not think

 

 

 

 

Here the shaddah is opened in the third person masculine and the feminine singular and in the second person singular and first-person verbs.

 

 

Examples from the Holy Quran

 

 

فَإِن لَّمْ تَفْعَلُوا فَأْذَنُوا بِحَرْبٍ مِّنَ اللَّـهِ وَرَسُولِهِ ۖ وَإِن تُبْتُمْ فَلَكُمْ رُءُوسُ أَمْوَالِكُمْ لَا تَظْلِمُونَ وَلَا تُظْلَمُونَ

 

 

And if you do not, then be informed of a war [against you] from Allah and His Messenger. But if you repent, you may have your principal – [thus] you do no wrong, nor are you wronged. (2:279)

 

 

فَإِن لَّمْ تَفْعَلُوا وَلَن تَفْعَلُوا فَاتَّقُوا النَّارَ 

 

 

But if you do not – and you will never be able to – then fear the Fire (2:24)

 

 

This Arabic lesson is now finished. The next one will be insha’Allah about the imperative verbs in Arabic.

 

Al-dirassa center offers you the possibility to study the Arabic language easily with a qualified teacher. If you are interested, do not hesitate to consult us.

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  1. […] This Arabic lesson is now finished. The next one will be insha’Allah about the subjunctive mood in Arabic. […]


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