Introduction of the particles of conjunction
Particles that link words in sentences are called conjunctions.
Types of particles of conjunction
- وَ – and. It is calledوَاو عَطَف: links one sentence to another or a name to another name.
- وَ – When. It is called:وَاو الحَال: comes between two sentences the second of which is a nominal sentence.
- فَ – then: it implies a close connection between sentences before and after it.
- أَوْ – or: to express doubt, or give a choice of one among few mentioned deeds.
- أَمْ – whether: for determination of one among few choices when the first object is preceded by hamza أ.
- إِذْ – when since/after/because: it is used with nominal or verbal sentences and refers to something of the past.
- إِذَا – when / if: it usually indicates a time related to the present or future.
- ثُمَّ – after that / then / thereupon: it often introduces sentences without a preliminary و or ف.
- حَتَّى – until / even up to used to indicate the termination of an object.
- لَكِنْ / لَكِنَّ: لَكِنْ is followed by a verb and لَكِنَّ is followed by a noun in the accusative e.g. and as prefixed to pronouns (example: لَكِنَّهُمْ)
- إِمَّا – either…or: when used twice in a sentence, it gives the meaning of “either…or…”
- أَمَّا – as for: it is followed by a nominative, the predicate of which is always introduced with a ف.
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Examples of particles of conjunction ised in the Holy Quran
فَلَا رَفَثَ وَلَا فُسُوقَ وَلَا جِدَالَ فِي الْحَجِّ
there is [to be for him] no sexual relations and no disobedience and no disputing during Hajj. (2:197)
وَآتُوا النِّسَاءَ صَدُقَاتِهِنَّ نِحْلَةً
And give the women [upon marriage] their [bridal] gifts graciously. (4:4)
فَتَلَقَّىٰ آدَمُ مِن رَّبِّهِ كَلِمَاتٍ فَتَابَ عَلَيْهِ
Then Adam received from his Lord [some] words, and He accepted his repentance. (2:37)
وَلَا تَحْلِقُوا رُءُوسَكُمْ حَتَّىٰ يَبْلُغَ الْهَدْيُ مَحِلَّهُ
And do not shave your heads until the sacrificial animal has reached its place of slaughter. (2:196)
فَمَن كَانَ مِنكُم مَّرِيضًا أَوْ بِهِ أَذًى مِّن رَّأْسِهِ فَفِدْيَةٌ مِّن صِيَامٍ أَوْ صَدَقَةٍ أَوْ نُسُكٍ
And whoever among you is ill or has an ailment of the head [making shaving necessary must offer] a ransom of fasting [three days] or charity or sacrifice. (2:196)
أَمْ حَسِبْتُمْ أَن تَدْخُلُوا الْجَنَّةَ وَلَمَّا يَأْتِكُم مَّثَلُ الَّذِينَ خَلَوْا مِن قَبْلِكُم
Or do you think that you will enter Paradise while such [trial] has not yet come to you as came to those who passed on before you? (2:214)
وَإِذْ قَالَ رَبُّكَ لِلْمَلَائِكَةِ إِنِّي جَاعِلٌ فِي الْأَرْضِ خَلِيفَةً
And [mention, O Muhammad], when your Lord said to the angels (2:30)
إِذَا زُلْزِلَتِ الْأَرْضُ زِلْزَالَهَا
When the earth is shaken with its [final] earthquake (99:1)
وَقَالَ الَّذِينَ كَفَرُوا أَإِذَا كُنَّا تُرَابًا وَآبَاؤُنَا أَئِنَّا لَمُخْرَجُونَ
And those who disbelieve say, “When we have become dust as well as our forefathers, will we indeed be brought out [of the graves]? (27:67)
ثُمَّ كَلَّا سَوْفَ تَعْلَمُونَ
Then no! You are going to know. (102:4)
فَلَمْ تَقْتُلُوهُمْ وَلَـٰكِنَّ اللَّـهَ قَتَلَهُمْ ۚ وَمَا رَمَيْتَ إِذْ رَمَيْتَ وَلَـٰكِنَّ اللَّـهَ رَمَىٰ
And you did not kill them, but it was Allah who killed them. And you threw not, [O Muhammad], when you threw (8:17)
فَإِمَّا مَنًّا بَعْدُ وَإِمَّا فِدَاءً
and either [confer] favor afterwards or ransom [them] (47:4)
أَمَّا السَّفِينَةُ فَكَانَتْ لِمَسَاكِينَ
As for the ship, it belonged to poor (18:79)