Introduction

 

Words that combine with a noun or pronoun to form a phrase are called prepositions.

 

They have a meaning of their own and affect nouns and pronouns.

 

Thus, their effect on the noun is that they will change the vowel of the last letter of the noun from dammah, or fatha to kasrah.

The prepositions which act on nouns

 

 

عَلَى

on/upon

 

 

إِلَى

to/towards

 

 

بِ

in/with

 

 

فِي

in

 

 

مِنْ

from/than

 

 

عَنْ

from/about

 

 

كَ

like/as

 

 

 

حَتَى

until

 

 

لِ

for/to

 

 

Examples:

 

  عَلَى قُلُوْبٍ

on + hearts

 

 

= عَلَى + قُلُوْبٌ 

= on hearts

 

 

خَتَمَ اللَّـهُ عَلَىٰ قُلُوبِهِمْ وَعَلَىٰ سَمْعِهِمْ ۖ وَعَلَىٰ أَبْصَارِهِمْ غِشَاوَةٌ

Allah has set a seal upon their hearts and upon their hearing, and over their vision is a veil (2:7)

 

إِلَى + السَّماءُ

Towards + the heaven

 

 

= إِلَى السَّمَاءِ

 = towards  heaven

 

 

ثُمَّ اسْتَوَىٰ إِلَى السَّمَاءِ فَسَوَّاهُنَّ سَبْعَ سَمَاوَاتٍ

Then He directed Himself to heaven  (2:29)

 

 

الرَّبُّ+ بِ  

With + the people

 

= بِالرَّبِّ

with the people  

 

 

قُلْ أَعُوذُ بِرَبِّ النَّاسِ

say, “I seek refuge in the Lord of humankind (114:1)  

 

 

فِيْ + دِيْنٌ

In + religion  

 

 

   فِيْ دِيْنٍ

= in religion    

 

 

وَرَأَيْتَ النَّاسَ يَدْخُلُونَ فِي دِينِ اللَّـهِ أَفْوَاجًا

and you see the people entering into the religion of Allah in multitudes, (110:2)

 

 

وَ + تِيْنٌ  

Swear by + the fig

 

وَ التِّيْنِ

swear by the fig

 

وَالتِّينِ وَالزَّيْتُونِ

by the fig and the olive (95:1)

 

 

تَ + اَللَّهُ

Swear by + Allah  

 

 

  تَاللَّهِ

swear by Allah

 

 

قَالُوا تَاللَّـهِ لَقَدْ عَلِمْتُم

They said, “By Allah, you have certainly known (12:73)    

 

 

مِنْ + اَلْجوْعُ

In + hunger    

 

 

مِنَ الْجوْعِ

= in hunger

 

الَّذِي أَطْعَمَهُم مِّن جُوعٍ وَآمَنَهُم مِّنْ خَوْفٍ 

who has fed them, [saving them] from hunger and made them safe, [saving them] from fear? (106:4)  

 

 

عَنْ + اَلْيَمِيْنُ

From + the right  

 

 

  عَنِ الْيَمِيْنِ

= From the right  

 

عَنِ الْيَمِينِ وَعَنِ الشِّمَالِ عِزِينَ

    [To sit] on [your] right and [your] left in separate groups? (70:37)

 

 

 

كَ + عَصْفٌ

Like + Straw  

 

 

     كَعَصْفٍ

like straw  

 

 

فَجَعَلَهُمْ كَعَصْفٍ مَّأْكُولٍ

And He made them like eaten straw. (105:5)

 

 

لِ + اَللَّهُ

For + Allah  

 

 

   = لِلَّهِ  

= For Allah  

 

  لِّلَّـهِ مَا فِي السَّمَاوَاتِ وَمَا فِي الْأَرْضِ

to Allah belongs whatever is in the heavens and whatever is in the earth. (2:284)    

 

 

حَتَى + مَطْلَعٌ  

Until + break  

 

 

= حَتَى مَطْلَعٍ  

= until break  

 

  سَلَامٌ هِيَ حَتَّىٰ مَطْلَعِ الْفَجْرِ

Peace it is until the emergence of dawn. (97:5)    

 

 

 

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The pronouns which affect the prepositions

 

All the above-mentioned prepositions have their effect on the last letter of the nouns. However, only four of the above prepositions:

عَلَى, إِلَى, بِ, فِيْ

 

act on the pronouns :

 

هُ, هُمَا, هُمْ, هُنَّ

 

They give kasrah to the first letter of the pronoun.

There is no action of these prepositions on any other pronouns.

 

 

Examples:

 

عَلى + هُ = عَلَيْهِ

عَلَى + هُمَا = عَلَيْهِمَا

عَلَى + هُمْ = عَلَيْهِمْ

عَلى + هُنَّ = عَلَيْهِنَ

 

The following table displays the effet of عَلَى, إِلَى , بِ , فِيْ on the pronouns هُ, هُمَا, هُمْ, هُنَّ.

 

 

Prepositions in Arabic

عَلى

 

هُ

Him

عَلَيْهِ

On him

 

هُمَا

Them both

عَلَيْهِما

On them both

 

هُمْ

Them all (M)

عَلَيْهِمْ

On them all (M)

 

هُنَّ

Them all (F)

عَلَيْهِنَّ

On them all (F)

 

 

إِلى

 

هُ

Him

إِلَيْهِ

Towards him

 

هُمَا

Them both

إِلَيْهِمَا

Towards them both

 

هُمْ

Them all (M)

إِلَيْهِمْ

Towards them all (M)

 

هُنَّ

Them all (F)

إِلَيْهِنَّ

Towards them all (F)

 

 

 

بِ

هُ

Him

بِهِ

With him

 

هُمَا

Them both

بِهِمَا

With them both

 

هُمْ

Them all (M)

بِهِمْ

With them all (M)

هُنَّ

Them all (F)

بِهِنَّ

With them all (F)

 

 

 

فِيْ

 

 

هُ

Him

فِيْهِ

In him

 

 

هُمَا

Them both

فِيْهِما

In them both

 

هُمْ

Them all (M)

فِيْهِمْ

In them all (M)

 

هُنَّ

Them all (F)

فِيْهِنَّ

In them all -(F)

 

 

Examples of the prepositions from the Noble Quran:

 

 

فَمَن فَرَضَ فِيهِنَّ الْحَجَّ

 

so whoever has made Hajj obligatory upon himself  (2:197)

 

 

 

فَلَا خَوْفٌ عَلَيْهِمْ وَلَا هُمْ يَحْزَنُونَ

 

there will be no fear concerning them, nor will they grieve. (2:38)

 

 

يُضِلُّ بِهِ كَثِيرًا وَيَهْدِي بِهِ كَثِيرًا ۚ وَمَا يُضِلُّ بِهِ إِلَّا الْفَاسِقِينَ 

 

He misleads many thereby and guides many thereby. And He misleads not except the defiantly disobedient, (2:26)

 

 

 

As we have mentioned earlier, there is no action of these prepositions on other pronouns. Examples for these are stated below.

 

عَلى + كَ  = عَلَيْكَ

No action of على on كَ

مَنْ + هُ = مِنْهُ

No action of مِنْ on هُ

 

Examples:

 

حُرِّمَتْ عَلَيْكُمْ أُمَّهَاتُكُمْ

 

Prohibited to you [for marriage] are your mothers, (4:23)

 

 

وَلَا تَتَّبِعُوا السُّبُلَ فَتَفَرَّقَ بِكُمْ عَن سَبِيلِهِ ۚ ذَٰلِكُمْ وَصَّاكُم بِهِ لَعَلَّكُمْ تَتَّقُونَ

 

and do not follow [other] ways, for you will be separated from His way. This has He instructed you that you may become righteous. (6:153)

 

 

 

وَوَضَعْنَا عَنكَ وِزْرَكَ

And We removed from you your burden (94:2)

 

 

 

Exception:

 

 

At one place (48:10) in the Holy Qur’an, there is no action of على on هُ, and it is read:

 

عَلَيْهُ

Allah says,

 

وَمَنْ أَوْفَىٰ بِمَا عَاهَدَ عَلَيْهُ اللَّـهَ فَسَيُؤْتِيهِ أَجْرًا عَظِيمًا

 

And he who fulfills that which he has promised Allah – He will give him a great reward. (48:10)

 

 

In the lesson “pronouns,” we observe that the proposition :

 

لِ

 

comes attached to pronouns as a prefix and takes the form of :

 

لَ

 

except in the first person pronoun :

 

ىَ

 

Masculine 3rd person

 

لَهُ

For Him

لَهُمَا

For them both

لَهُمْ

For them all

 

 

Masculine 2nd person

 

لَكَ

 For you

لَكُمَا

 For you both

لَكُمْ

For you all

 

 

 

Masculine 1st person

لِيْ

For me

لَنَا

For us all

 

 

Examples:

 

لَهُ الْمُلْكُ وَلَهُ الْحَمْدُ

To Him belongs dominion, and to Him belongs [all] praise, (64:1)

 

أَخْرَجْنَا لَهُمْ دَابَّةً مِّنَ الْأَرْضِ

We will bring forth for them a creature from the earth speaking to them (27:82)

 

أَلَمْ نَشْرَحْ لَكَ صَدْرَكَ

Did We not expand for you, [O Muhammad], your breast? (94:1)

 

 

Feminine 3rd person

 

لَهَا

For her

لَهُمَا

For them both

لَهُنَّ

For them all

 

 

Feminine 2nd person

 

لَكِ

For you

لَكُمَا

For you both

لَكُنَّ

For you all

 

 

Feminine 1st person

 

لِيْ

For me

لَنَا

For us all

 

 

 

Examples of the prepositions from the Noble Quran:

 

لَهَا مَا كَسَبَتْ وَعَلَيْهَا مَا اكْتَسَبَتْ 

It will have [the consequence of] what [good] it has gained, and it will bear [the consequence of] what [evil] it has earned. (2:286)

 

لَكُمْ دِينُكُمْ وَلِيَ دِينِ

 

For you is your religion, and for me, is my religion.” (109:6)

 

 

 

This Arabic lesson is now finished. The next one will be insha’Allah about the adverbs in Arabic.

 

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