the pronouns in Arabic

Introduction

 

Pronouns are used as a substitute for a noun like he, her, his, her, their, them, I, etc.

 

There are basically two types of pronouns:

 

  1. Attached pronouns – الضَّمِيْرُ الْمُتَّصِلُ which come attached to a noun, verb, or particle.
  2. Detached pronouns – الضَّمِيْرُ الْمُنْفَصِلُ which comes separatly without attaching itself to a verb, noun, or particle.

Classification of pronouns

 

Pronouns can be classified according to:

 

Conversation – الْكَلامُ:

 

  • Third-person – الْغَائِبُ
  • Second person – الْمُخَاطَبُ
  • First-person – الْمُتَكَلِّمُ

 

Gender -الْجِنْسُ:

 

  • Masculine – المُذَكَّرُ
  • Feminine – الْمُؤَنَّفُ

 

Number – الْعَدَدُ

 

 

Note: unlike English, Arabic uses a separate word for “two,” which is the dual – المُثَنَّى.

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Third Person Pronouns – الضَّمَائِرُ لِلْغَائِبِ

 

As these are used most often in the Qur’an, we will deal with them first.

 

Table for masculine third-person pronouns – مُذَكَر غَائِب

 

Detached pronouns –  الضَّمِيْرُ الْمُنْفَصِلُ

 

Singular

هُوَ

He

 

Dual

هُمَا

They two

 

Plural

هُمْ

They all

 

 

 

Attached pronouns in arabic – الضَّمِيْرُ الْمُتَّصِلُ

 

Singular

هُ

His

 

 

Dual

هُمَا

Theirs (two)

 

 

Plural

هُمْ

their (all)

 

 

Singular

لَهُ

For him

 

 

Dual

لَهُمَا

For them (two)

 

 

Plural

لَهُمْ

For them (all)

 

 

Singular

إِيَّاهُ

Only him

 

 

Dual

إِيَّاهُما

Only them (two)

 

 

Plural

إِيَّاهُمَا

Only them (all)

 

 

Table for feminine third-person pronouns – مُؤَنَّثُ غَائِب

 

 

Detached pronouns in arabic –  الضَّمِيْرُ الْمُنْفَصِلُ

 

Singular

هِيَ

She

 

 

Dual

هُمَا

They (two)

 

 

Plural

هُنَّ

They (all)

 

 

Attached pronouns – الضَّمِيْرُ الْمُتَّصِلُ

 

Singular

هَا

Her

 

 

Dual

هُمَا

Their (two)

 

 

Plural

هُنَّ

Their (all)

 

 

Singular

لَها

For her

 

 

Dual

لَهُمَا

For them  (two)

 

 

Plural

لَهُنَّ

For them (all)

 

 

Singular

إِيَّاهَا

Only her

 

 

Dual

إَيَّاهُمَا

Only them  (two)

 

 

Plural

إِيَّاهُنَّ

Only them (all)

 

 

 

Examples of detached pronouns –  الضَّمِيْرُ الْمُنْفَصِلُ

 

 

Detached pronouns –  الضَّمِيْرُ الْمُنْفَصِلُ

 

Singular

هُوَ مُسْلِمٌ

He is muslim

 

 

Dual

هُمَا مُسْلِمَانِ

They are both muslims

 

 

Plural

هُم مُسْلِمُوْنَ

They are muslims

 

 

Attached pronouns – الضَّمِيْرُ الْمُتَّصِلُ

 

Singular

هِيَ مُسْلِمَةٌ

She is muslim

 

 

Dual

هُمَا مُسْلِمَتَانِ

They are both muslims

 

 

Plural

هُنَّ مُسْلِمَاتٌ

They are muslims

Examples of attached pronouns –  الضَّمِيْرُ الْمُتَّصِلُ with a noun:

 

 

Detached pronouns –  الضَّمِيْرُ الْمُنْفَصِلُ

 

Singular

رَبُّهُ

His Lord

 

 

Dual

رَبُّهُمَا

Their Lord

 

 

Plural

رَبُهُمْ

Their Lord

 

 

Attached pronouns – الضَّمِيْرُ الْمُتَّصِلُ

 

Singular

رَبُّهَا

Her Lord

 

 

Dual

رَبُّهُمَا

Their Lord

 

 

Plural

رَبُّهُنَّ

Their Lord

 

Examples of attached pronouns –  الضَّمِيْرُ الْمُتَّصِلُ with a verb:

 

 

Detached pronouns –  الضَّمِيْرُ الْمُنْفَصِلُ

 

Singular

خَلَقَهُ

He created him

 

 

Dual

خَلَقَهُمَا

He created them

 

 

Plural

خَلَقَهُم

He created them

 

Attached pronouns – الضَّمِيْرُ الْمُتَّصِلُ

 

Singular

خَلَقَهَا

He created her

 

 

Dual

خَلَقَهُمَا

He created them

 

 

Plural

خَلَقَهُنَّ

He created them

 

Examples from the noble Quran

 

فَوَسْوَسَ لَهُمَا الشَّيْطَانُ

 

But Satan whispered to them (7:20)

 

وَقَاسَمَهُمَا إِنِّي لَكُمَا لَمِنَ النَّاصِحِينَ

 

And he swore [by Allah] to them, “Indeed, I am to you from among the sincere advisors.” (7:21)

 

 أَلَّا تَعْبُدُوا إِلَّا إِيَّاهُ

 

 that you do not worship except Him(17:23)

 

إِذْ هُمْ عَلَيْهَا قُعُودٌ

 

And they, to what they were doing against the believers, were witnesses. (85:6)

 

وَبِالْآخِرَةِ هُمْ يُوقِنُونَ

You, and of the Hereafter they are certain [in faith]. (2:4)

 

 

Second Person Pronouns

الضَّمَائِرُ لِلْمُخَاطَبِ

 

Table for masculine second-person pronouns – الضَّمَائِرُ لِلْمُذَكَرِ لِلْمُخَاطَبِ

 

Detached pronouns –  الضَّمِيْرُ الْمُنْفَصِلُ

 

Singular 

أَنْتَ

You

Dual

أَنْتُما

You both

 

Plural

أَنْتُمْ

You all

 

 

Attached pronouns – الضَّمِيْرُ الْمُتَّصِلُ

 

Singular 

كَ

Yours

Dual

كُمَا

Yours both

 

Plural

كُمْ

Yours all

 

 

 

Singular 

لَكَ

For you

Dual

لَكُمَا

For you both

 

Plural

لَكُمْ

For you all

 

 

Singular 

إِيَّأكَ

Only from you

Dual

إِيَّاكُما

Only from you both

 

Plural

إِيَّاكُمْ

Only from you all

 

Table for feminine second-person pronouns – الضَّمَائِرُ لِلْمُؤَنَّثِ لِلْمُخَاطَبِ

 

 

Detached pronouns –  الضَّمِيْرُ الْمُنْفَصِلُ

 

Singular 

أَنْتِ

You

Dual

أَنْتُمَا

You both

 

Plural

أَنْتُنَّ

You all

 

 

Attached pronouns – الضَّمِيْرُ الْمُتَّصِلُ

 

Singular 

كَ

Yours

Dual

كُمَا

Yours two

 

Plural

كُمْ

Yours all

 

 

 

Singular 

كِ

Yours

Dual

كُمَا

Yours two

 

Plural

كُنَّ

Yours all

 

00:00
 

Singular 

لَكِ

For you

 

Dual

لَكُمَا

For both of two

 

Plural

لَكُنَّ

For you all

 

 

Singular 

إِيَّاكِ

Only from you

 

Dual

إِيَّاكُمَا

Only from you two

 

Plural

إِيَّاكُنَّ

Only from  you all

 

 

 

Examples of detached pronouns – الضَّمَائِرُ الْمُنْفَصِلُ

 

 

Masculine

 

Singular 

أَنْتَ مُسْلِمٌ

You are Muslim

 

Dual

أَنْتُمَا مُسْلِمَانِ

You are both Muslims

 

Plural

أَنْتُمْ مُسْلِمُوْنَ

You are all Muslims

 

 

 

 

Feminine

 

Singular 

أَنْتِ مُسْلِمَةٌ

You are Muslim

 

Dual

أَنْتُمَا مُسْلِمَتَانِ

You are both Muslims

 

Plural

أَنْتُنَّ مُسْلِمَاتٌ

You are all Muslims

 

 

 

Examples of attached pronouns with a noun:

 

Masculine

 

Singular 

رَبُّكَ

Your Lord

 

Dual

رَبُّكُمَا

Lord of you both

 

Plural

رَبُّكُمْ

Lord of you all

 

 

 

 

 

Feminine

 

Singular 

رَبُّكِ

Your Lord

 

Dual

رَبُّكُمَا

Lord of you both

 

Plural

رَبُّكُنَّ

Lord of you all

 

 

Examples of attached pronouns with a verb:

 

Masculine

 

Singular 

خَلَقَكَ

He created you

 

Dual

خَلَقَكُمَا

He created you both

 

Plural

خَلَقَكُمْ

He created you all

 

 

 

 

Feminine

 

Singular 

خَلَقَكِ

He created you

 

Dual

خَلَقَكُمَا

He created you both

 

Plural

خَلَقَكُنَّ

He created you all

 

Examples from the Noble Quran:

 

قَالُوا سُبْحَانَكَ لَا عِلْمَ لَنَا إِلَّا مَا عَلَّمْتَنَا ۖ إِنَّكَ أَنتَ الْعَلِيمُ الْحَكِيمُ

 

They said, “Exalted are You; we do not know what You have taught us. Indeed, it is You who is the Knowing, the Wise.” (2:32)

 

 

 وَقُلْنَا يَا آدَمُ اسْكُنْ أَنتَ وَزَوْجُكَ الْجَنَّةَ

 

And We said, “O Adam, dwell, you and your wife, in Paradise  (2:35)

 

 

إِيَّاكَ نَعْبُدُ وَإِيَّاكَ نَسْتَعِينُ

 

It is You we worship and You we ask for help. (1:5)

 

 

أَلَمْ نَشْرَحْ لَكَ صَدْرَكَ 

 

Did We not expand for you, [O Muhammad], your breast? (94:1)

 

 

يَا مَرْيَمُ اقْنُتِي لِرَبِّكِ وَاسْجُدِي وَارْكَعِي مَعَ الرَّاكِعِينَ

 

O Mary, be devoutly obedient to your Lord and prostrate and bow with those who bow [in prayer].” (3:43)

 

 

First Person Pronoun – الضَّمَائِرُ لِلْمُتَكَلَّمِ

 

In the third and second person, we have categorized a singular, dual, and plural accord to the number. However, dual does not exist for the first-person pronoun.

 

نَحْنُ

 

it is used for both dual and plural. As in English, the first person pronouns are common for both masculine and feminine genders.

 

 

Examples of First-person (masculine/feminine)

 

 

Detached pronouns

 

Singular

أَنَا

I

 

Plural

نَحْنُ

We

 

 

 

Attached pronouns (To verb)

 

Singular

نِىْ

Me

 

Plural

نَا

Us

 

 

Singular

لِىْ

For me

 

Plural

لَنَا

For us

 

 

Singular

إِيَّاىَ

Only me

 

Plural

 

إِيَّانَا

Only us

 

 

 

Note: When attached pronouns are used with a noun, we suffix to the noun:

 

ى

 

When they are used with a verb :

 

نِىْ

 

is used.

 

رَبِّيْ

My Lord

 

خَلَقَنِيْ

He created me

 

Sometimes in the first person, possessive singular pronouns ى is not attached to the noun or verb, but the possession is indicated by accenting the last letter with a kasrah.

 

أُجِيبُ دَعْوَةَ الدَّاعِ إِذَا دَعَانِ

 I respond to the invocation of the supplicant when he calls upon Me (2:186)

 

 

لَكُمْ دِينُكُمْ وَلِيَ دِينِ

For you is your religion, and for me, is my religion.” (109:6)

 

 

إنَّ comes in the meaning of surely/certainly. It can be attached to pronouns and used.

 

نَا + إِنَّ = إِنَّا

Surely we

 

 

كَ + إِنَّ = إِنَّكَ

Surely you

 

 

هُ + إِنَّ = إِنَّهُ

Surely he

 

 

Examples from the Noble Quran:

 

إِنِّي وَجَّهْتُ وَجْهِيَ لِلَّذِي فَطَرَ السَّمَاوَاتِ وَالْأَرْضَ حَنِيفًا

 

Indeed, I have turned my face toward He who created the heavens and the earth, inclining toward truth, (6:79)

 

 

إِنَّا أَعْطَيْنَاكَ الْكَوْثَرَ

 

Indeed, We have granted you, [O Muhammad], al-Kawthar. (108:1)

 

 

فَسَبِّحْ بِحَمْدِ رَبِّكَ وَاسْتَغْفِرْهُ ۚ إِنَّهُ كَانَ تَوَّابًا

 

Then exalt [Him] with praise of your Lord and ask forgiveness of Him. Indeed, He is ever Accepting of repentance. (110:3)

Examples of detached pronouns

 

 

Masculine

 

Singular

أَنَا مُسْلِمٌ

I am a Muslim

 

Dual 

نَحْنُ مُسْلِمَانِ

We two are Muslims

 

Plural

نَحْنُ مُسْلِمُوْنَ

We all are Muslims

 

 

 

Feminine

 

Singular

أَنَا مُسْلِمَةٌ

I am a Muslim

 

Dual 

نَحْنُ مُسْلِمَتَانِ

We two are Muslims

 

Plural

نَحْنُ مُسْلِمَاتٌ

We all are Muslims

 

 

Examples of detached pronouns with a noun:

 

Masculine/Feminine

 

Singular

رَبِّيْ

My Lord

 

Plural

رَبُّنا

Our Lord

 

 

Examples of detached pronouns with a verb:

 

 

Masculine/Feminine

 

Singular

خَلَقَنِيْ

He created me

 

Plural

خَلَقَنِيْ

He created us

 

Examples from the Noble Quran:

 قَالُوا إِنَّمَا نَحْنُ مُصْلِحُونَ

And when it is said to them, “Do not cause corruption on the earth,” they say, “We are but reformers.” (2:11)

 

مِّمَّا نَزَّلْنَا عَلَىٰ عَبْدِنَا

 

 about what We have sent down upon Our Servant [Muhammad] (2:23)

 

 

وَنَحْنُ نُسَبِّحُ بِحَمْدِكَ وَنُقَدِّسُ

we declare Your praise and sanctify You? (2:30)

 

 

وَمِنْهُم مَّن يَقُولُ رَبَّنَا آتِنَا فِي الدُّنْيَا حَسَنَةً وَفِي الْآخِرَةِ حَسَنَةً وَقِنَا عَذَابَ النَّارِ

 

But among them is he who says, “Our Lord, give us in this world [that which is] good and in the Hereafter [that which is] good and protect us from the punishment of the Fire.” (2:201)

 

This Arabic lesson is now finished. The next one will be insha’Allah about the prepositions in Arabic.

 

Al-dirassa center offers you the possibility to study the Arabic language easily with a qualified teacher. If you are interested, do not hesitate to consult us.

 

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