relative pronouns in arabic

Introduction to the relative pronouns

 

Relative pronouns relate to or depend on the word before or after them. They indicate a particular thing but do not make complete sense.

Masculine

 

Singular

اَلَّذِي

That one who/ that one which

 

 

Dual

   اَلَّذَيْنِ – اَلَّذَانِ

Those two who/ those two which

 

 

Plural

اَلَّذِيْنَ

Those all who/ That who/ Those which

 

 

 

 

 

Feminine

 

Singular

اَلّتِيْ

That one who/ that one which

 

 

Dual

  اَلَّتَيْنِ – اَلَّتَانِ

Those two who/ those two which

 

 

آلائِي 

Those all who/ That who/ Those which

 

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Relative pronoun – اَلصِّلَةُ

 

The relative sentence that follows the relative pronouns are called :

اَلصِّلَةُ

It completes the meaning of the relative sentence.

When the relative pronoun refers to any part of the اَلصِّلَةُ except the subject, it must be repeated by an attached pronoun known as the :

 

عَائِدٌ or رَاجِعٌ

 

for example:

 

فَاتَّقُوا النَّارَ الَّتِي وَقُودُهَا النَّاسُ وَالْحِجَارَةُ ۖ أُعِدَّتْ لِلْكَافِرِينَ 

 

 

then fear the Fire, whose fuel is men and stones, prepared for the disbelievers. (2:24)

 

النَّاسُ وَالْحِجَارَةُ = صِلة

 

وَقُودُهَا  = راجِعٌ

 

الَّتِي = relative pronoun

 

Here هَا is the attached pronouns – راجِعٌ.

Examples used in the Holy Quran

 

وَلَوْ قَاتَلَكُمُ الَّذِينَ كَفَرُوا لَوَلَّوُا الْأَدْبَارَ

 

 

And if those [Makkans] who disbelieve had fought you, they would have turned their backs [in flight]. (48:22)

 

 

الَّذِينَ آمَنُوا وَعَمِلُوا الصَّالِحَاتِ

 

 

Those who have believed and done righteous deeds (13:29)

 

 

وَاللَّذَانِ يَأْتِيَانِهَا مِنكُمْ

 

 

And the two who commit it among you (4:16)

 

 

وَلَا تَسْتَوِي الْحَسَنَةُ وَلَا السَّيِّئَةُ ۚ ادْفَعْ بِالَّتِي هِيَ أَحْسَنُ فَإِذَا الَّذِي بَيْنَكَ وَبَيْنَهُ عَدَاوَةٌ كَأَنَّهُ وَلِيٌّ حَمِيمٌ

 

 

And not equal are the good deed and the bad. Repel [evil] by that [deed] which is better, and thereupon the one whom between you and him is enmity [will become] as though he was a devoted friend. (41:34)

 

 

وَاللَّاتِي يَأْتِينَ الْفَاحِشَةَ مِن نِّسَائِكُمْ

 

Those who commit unlawful sexual intercourse of your women(4:15)

 

 

 وَاللَّائِي يَئِسْنَ مِنَ الْمَحِيضِ

 

 

And those who no longer expect menstruation among your women (65:4)

 

 

 

إِنْ أُمَّهَاتُهُمْ إِلَّا اللَّائِي وَلَدْنَهُمْ

 

 

Their mothers are none but those who gave birth to them (58:2)

 

مَنْ – لِمَنْ – مَا used as relative pronouns

 

مَنْ

(who/ whoever) and

مَا

(what/ whatever) are also used as relative pronouns. مَنْ is used for living things, and مَا is used for non-living things.

Examples:

 

وَمِنَ النَّاسِ مَن يُجَادِلُ فِي اللَّـهِ بِغَيْرِ عِلْمٍ

 

 

And of the people is he who disputes about Allah without knowledge (22:3)

 

 

يَدْعُو لَمَن ضَرُّهُ أَقْرَبُ مِن نَّفْعِهِ ۚ لَبِئْسَ الْمَوْلَىٰ وَلَبِئْسَ الْعَشِيرُ

 

 

He invokes one whose harm is closer than his benefit – how wretched the protector and how wretched the associate. (22:13)

 

 

مَا عِندَكُمْ يَنفَدُ ۖ وَمَا عِندَ اللَّـهِ بَاقٍ ۗ وَلَنَجْزِيَنَّ الَّذِينَ صَبَرُوا أَجْرَهُم بِأَحْسَنِ مَا كَانُوا يَعْمَلُونَ

 

 

Whatever you have will end, but what Allah has is lasting. And We will surely give patients their reward according to the best of what they used to do. (16:96)

This Arabic lesson is now finished. The next one will be insha’Allah about interrogative pronouns in Arabic.

 

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