les règles de la prolongation | regles de tajwid

In the Arabic language, we call “madd “, which we define as “addition” or “prolongation”.

 

At the tajweed rules level, it is about prolonging the voice of the voice when pronouncing the letter.

In the Arabic alphabet:

 

There are 3 short vowel marks, also called haraka

 

  • Fatha  
  • Damma
  • Kasra

And there are 3 long vowel marks:

 

The prolongation concerns these 3 letters, which are commonly called the letters of the prolongation, which are:

 

  • The letter alif ا preceded by a consonant carrying the short vowel fatha: it is the alif maqsûra ا or alif mamdoûda ى ٜ
  • the letter ya ي preceded by a consonant with the short vowel kasra is the letter ي.
  • The letter waw و preceded by a consonant bearing the short vowel damma: it is the و.
  •  

All the long vowel marks are in the following verse of the Quran:

 

قَالَ الَّذِي عِندَهُ عِلْمٌ مِّنَ الْكِتَابِ

 

 

Said one who had knowledge from the Scripture (27:40)

 

 

The prolongations are classified into 2 categories, which are themselves divided into 10 subcategories:

 

  • The main prolongation: al madd al aslee, divided into 4 subcategories.
  • The specific prolongation, al madd al far’ee, related to a hamza ء or a sukoon: is divided into 6 subcategories.

The main prolongation – المَدُّ الأَصْلِي

 

 

The main prolongation, al madd al aslee, is a basic extension that is not linked to a hamza ء or a sukoon.

 

It is naturally prolonged by itself, and this unlike of the specific prolongation – al madd al far’ee – which is prolonged by the cause of a hamza ء or a sukoon.

 

The time of this prolongation is always 2 times (harakatayn).

 

 

1. The natural prolongation – الْمَدُّ الأَصْلِي

 

 

It’s a simple prolongation with no special features, a natural lengthening.

 

The long vowel is neither followed nor preceded by a hamza ء or a sukoon.

 

The prolongation is made by 2 times (harakatayn) and no more.

 

 

The three letters of the natural prolongation are the Alif, the Waw and Ya:

 

 

ا – ي – و

 

  This extension is applied in the following 3 cases:  

 

  • When a consonant precedes the alif ا with the short vowel fatha
  • When a consonant precedes the yâ ي with the short vowel kasra
  • When a consonant precedes the wâw و with the short vowel damma

 

  Example:  

 

صِرَاطَ الَّذِينَ أَنْعَمْتَ عَلَيْهِمْ غَيْرِ الْمَغْضُوبِ عَلَيْهِمْ وَلَا الضَّالِّينَ

 

 

The path of those upon whom You have bestowed favour, not of those who have evoked [Your] anger or of those who are astray. (1:7)

 

 

Notes:

 

In some examples of the mushaf, the alif of prolongation is surmounted by a clear circle. In that case, we will not do a prolongation of 2-times but only 1 time.

 

  Example:  

no prolongation in this verse

 

 

Nor will I be a worshipper of what you worship. (109:4)

 

  Here we do not make any prolongation of the Alif.  

there is no prolongation in this verse of sura at teen

 

 

So what yet causes you to deny the Recompense? (95:6)

 

 

The circle above the alif is not so clearly drawn sometimes. Here we make a 2-times prolongation.

 

 

2. Al Madd al Badal – المَدُّ الْبَدَلُ

 

 

When a hamza ء precedes the prolongation, the long vowel is 2 times.

 

Examples

 

 

إِلَّا الَّذِينَ ءامَنُوا وَعَمِلُوا الصَّالِحَاتِ فَلَهُمْ أَجْرٌ غَيْرُ مَمْنُونٍ

 

 

So what yet causes you to deny the Recompense? (95:6)

 

 

عَلَّمَ الْقُرْآنَ

 

 

Taught the Qur’an, (55:2)

 

 

3. Al madd al ‘eewadee – الْمَدُّ العِوَضِي

 

 

It is a prolongation that replaces the tanween fathatayn ً   at the end of a verse or during a pause in the middle of a verse.

 

This prolongation of 2 times is not done only for the fathatayn.

 

Example:

 

وَالْعَادِيَاتِ ضَبْحًا

 

 

By the racers, panting, (100:1)

 

 

4. al Madd as-Sila Sughra – الْمَدُّ الصِّلة صُغْرَى

 

 

Usually, at the end of a word, the letter Ha ه represents the personal pronoun of the 3rd person singular.

 

  • If the letterه is preceded by a letter carrying sukoon or a long vowel mark or the letter carrying sukoon, the letter’s pronunciation is 1 time only.

 

  Example:  

 

رَّضِيَ اللَّـهُ عَنْهُمْ وَرَضُوا عَنْهُ ۚ ذَٰلِكَ لِمَنْ خَشِيَ رَبَّهُ

 

 

Allah being pleased with them and they with Him. That is for whoever has feared his Lord. (98:8)

 

 

This letter is extended by 2 steps when it is not followed by a hamza ء, except in 3 cases:

 

  • When it is preceded by a letter of prolongation,
  • When it is preceded by a letter that carries sukoon,
  • When she herself, she wears sukoon.

 

 

Example:

 

 

 فَأَثَرْنَ بِهِ نَقْعًا

 

 

Stirring up thereby [clouds of] dust, (100:4)

 

  Notes on Madd as-Sila Sughra:

 

  • In some copies of the mushaf, there is a small comma or a small loop next to the letter ه (depending on whether it is vocalized with kasra or damma), to indicate to us the mark of the third person of the singular masculine and that one must extend by 2 times.

 

  Example of the sura Al Adiyat verse 4, prolongation of ه with a kasra هِ:

here the prolongation must be made

Example sura Al Balad verse 8, prolongation of ه with a damma ُه:

 

here we make the prolongation of the letter ha

 

 

Have We not made for him two eyes? (90:8)

 

  The exceptions to the rule of Madd as-Sila Sughra:

 

  •  Sometimes the above rules concerning the extension time of the letter ه are not to be applied. This is part of the specificity of the Holy Qur’an.

 

Examples:  

 

قَالُوا أَرْجِهْ وَأَخَاهُ وَأَرْسِلْ فِي الْمَدَائِنِ حَاشِرِينَ

 

 

They said, “Postpone [the matter of] him and his brother and send among the cities gatherers (7:111)

 

 

يُضَاعَفْ لَهُ الْعَذَابُ يَوْمَ الْقِيَامَةِ وَيَخْلُدْ فِيهِ مُهَانًا

 

 

Multiplied for him is the punishment on the Day of Resurrection, and he will abide therein humiliated – (25:69)

 

 

وَإِن تَشْكُرُوا يَرْضَهُ لَكُمْ

 

 

And if you are grateful, He approves it for you (39:7)

 

 

 كَلَّا لَئِن لَّمْ يَنتَهِ لَنَسْفَعًا بِالنَّاصِيَةِ 

 

 

No! If he does not desist, We will surely drag him by the forelock – (96:15)

 

 

  • On the contrary, sometimes the rule of Madd as-Sila Sughra is to be applied while the condition that the pronoun ه be preceded by a vocalized mutaharika letter is not met.

 

  Example:

 

يُضَاعَفْ لَهُ الْعَذَابُ يَوْمَ الْقِيَامَةِ وَيَخْلُدْ فِيهِ مُهَانًا

 

 

Multiplied for him is the punishment on the Day of Resurrection, and he will abide therein humiliated – (25:69)

 

 

5. Al Madd at-tamkeen – الَمَدُّ التَّمْكِيْن

 

 

When 2 yâ ي or 2 waw و follow each other, one of these letters is a letter of prolongation (ya preceded by a kasra or waw preceded by a damma). It is necessary to respect the 2 times of the letter of prolongation ya or waw not to make assimilation (al idgham) between the 2 letters.

 

Examples:

 

 

 وَإِذَا حُيِّيتُم بِتَحِيَّةٍ فَحَيُّوا بِأَحْسَنَ مِنْهَا أَوْ رُدُّوهَا

 

 

And when you are greeted with a greeting, greet [in return] with one better than it or [at least] return it [in a like manner] (4:86)

 

 

 إِنَّ الَّذِينَ آمَنُوا وَعَمِلُوا الصَّالِحَاتِ

 

 

Indeed, those who believe and do righteous deeds  (2:277)

Book your free trial lesson

 
In addition to the free tajweed lessons, we offer you free to correct your reading with an Egyptian Quran teacher.
 

 

The specific prolongation – الْمَدُّ الْفَرْعِي

 

 

The prolongation is followed by a hamza letter ء, in 3 cases:

 

 

1. The obligatory attached prolongation – الْمَدُّ الْوَاجِبُ المُتَّصِل

 

 

It is when in the same word, the extension is followed by the hamza ء. We can then extend by 4 or 5 times.

 

Example:

 

 

 الَّذِينَ هُمْ يُرَاءُونَ 

 

 

Those who make show [of their deeds] (107:6)

 

 

Notes:

 

  • Attention! This prolongation is an obligation to be applied in the recitation.
  • When there is a choice on the number of beats, it is advisable to choose and stick to it throughout its reading.
  • In some copies of the mushaf, a small wave above the letter is the mark of a 4 or 5 beats prolongation.

 

Example:

Madd al Wajib al Muttasil

 

 

And your Lord has come and the angels, rank upon rank, (89:22)

 

 

2. The permissible attached prolongation – الْمَدُّ الْجَائِز الْمُنْفَصِلُ

 

 

When the prolongation is at the end of a word, and the hamza letter ء is at the beginning of the word that follows it.

 

We can then extend by 4 or 5 beats (and 2 beats for certain readings).

 

Example:

 

 

لَا أَعْبُدُ مَا تَعْبُدُونَ 

 

 

I do not worship what you worship. (109:2)

 

 

Note :

 

In some copies of the mushaf, a small wave above the letter marks a prolongation of 4 or 5 beats.

 

Example:

prolongation of Sura al Fajr

 

 

But when He tries him and restricts his provision, he says, “My Lord has humiliated me.” (89:16)

 

 

3. The big detached prolongation – الْمَدُّ الضِّلَة كُبْرَى

 

 

It is the prolongation following the masculine pronoun هُ. When a hamza ء follows this pronoun, it is extended by 4 or 5 beats. The Ulemas have said that there is a preference for doing 4 beats instead of 5.

 

 

Example:

 

 

 يَحْسَبُ أَنَّ مَالَهُ أَخْلَدَهُ

 

 

He thinks that his wealth will make him immortal. (104:3)

 

 

Note :

 

In some copies of the mushaf, there is a wave above the small waw or the small comma next to the ه, to indicate to us the mark of the third person of the masculine singular and which must be extended by 4 or 5 times.

 

  Example:  

Madd sila kubra

 

 

He thinks that his wealth will make him immortal. (104:3)

The prolongation  is followed by a sukoon, in 3 cases:

 

 

1. Al Madd al Arid As-Sukoon – الْمَدُّ العارِضُ السُّكُون

 

 

It is when a sukoon arrives after a prolongation, which is due to the stoppage. It can be extended by 2, 4, or 6 beats, depending on the reading mode.

 

2 beats for fast recitation, 4 beats for medium speed and 6 beats for slow recitation.

 

Example:

 

 

بِسْمِ اللَّـهِ الرَّحْمَـٰنِ الرَّحِيمِ

 

 

In the name of Allah, the Entirely Merciful, the Especially Merciful. (1:1)

 

 

 2. Al Madd al-leen – الْمَدُّ اللِّين

 

 

One stops on a word whose penultimate letter is a waw و or ya ي, which carries a sukoon and which is preceded by a fatha.

 

We can then extend this waw و or this ya ي by 2, 4, or 6 beats, depending on the reading mode.

 

2 beats for fast recitation, 4 beats for medium speed and 6 beats for slow recitation.

 

Example:

 

 

لِإِيلَافِ قُرَيْشٍ

 

 

For the accustomed security of the Quraysh – (106:1)

 

 

3. Al Madd al-Lazeem – الْمَدُّ الَّازِم

 

 

It is a prolongation followed by an obligatory sukoon, all in one word. 6 beats must extend it.

 

Note : In some copies of the mushaf, a small wave above the letter is the mark of a 6-count prolongation.

 

  Examples:  

Madd al Lazeem - necassary prolongation

 

 

or of those who are astray. (1:7)

 

 

Madd -al lazeem - necessary prolongation sura al baqara

 

 

Alif, Lam, Meem. (2:1)

 

  Al madd al lazeem is divided into four categories:

 

  • Al Madd al lazeem al Kalimee al Muthaqqal – الْمَدُّ الَّازِم الكَلِمي المُثَّقَل

 

  This prolongation concerns a single word, and “muthaqqal ” means in the Arabic language: weighed down.  

 

This is when the prolongation is followed by a doubled letter (with shadda) in a single word.

 

Example:

 

    Madd al Lazeem - necassary prolongation

 

 

or of those who are astray. (1:7)

 

 

  • Al Madd al Lazeem al Kalimee al Mukhaffaf – الْمَدُّ الَّازِم الْكَلِمي المُخَّفَف

 

 

It is a prolongation concerns a single word, and “mukhaffaf” means in the Arabic language: lightened.

 

It is when the prolongation is followed by a letter sakeen (with sukoon) in a word.

 

This rule only exists twice in the Holy Qur’an, for an identical word, the word آلْآنَ  (which means in Arabic: now) and in the same sura, sura Yunus:

 

 

أَثُمَّ إِذَا مَا وَقَعَ آمَنتُم بِهِ ۚ آلْآنَ وَقَدْ كُنتُم بِهِ تَسْتَعْجِلُونَ

 

 

Then is it that when it has [actually] occurred, you will believe in it? Now? And you were [once] for it impatient (10:51)

 

 

آلْآنَ وَقَدْ عَصَيْتَ قَبْلُ وَكُنتَ مِنَ الْمُفْسِدِينَ

 

 

Now? And you had disobeyed [Him] before and were of the corrupters? (10:91)

 

Note :

 

We also find the word آلْآنَ in Sura Yousuf verse 51, but in this case, it is an affirmative sentence and not an interrogative sentence.

 

We will, therefore, not apply the rule of madd al lazeem al kalimee al mukhaffaf but, the prolongation being preceded by a hamza ء, that of madd al Badal of 2 times.

 

 

قَالَتِ امْرَأَتُ الْعَزِيزِ الْآنَ حَصْحَصَ الْحَقُّ أَنَا رَاوَدتُّهُ عَن نَّفْسِهِ وَإِنَّهُ لَمِنَ الصَّادِقِينَ

 

 

The wife of al-‘Azeez said, “Now the truth has become evident. It was I who sought to seduce him, and indeed, he is of the truthful. (12:51)

 

 

  • al madd al lazeem al Harfee al Muthaqqal – الْمَدُّ الَّازِم الحَرْفِي المُثَقَّل

 

 

The prolongation that concerns a single letter and “muthaqqal” means in the Arabic language: weighed down. It is the prolongation that is found in the letters which begin certain suras.

 

When pronounced alphabetically and expanded, they contain 3 letters, including a long one in the middle followed by a third reinforced letter, i.e. with a shadda, merging into the next letter.

 

For this prolongation to take place, 3 conditions are necessary:

 

  •  The spelling of the letter must be made up of 3 letters (Example: Lam ل).
  • The middle letter must be a long vowel (Example: Lam ل).
  • The 3rd letter is assimilated (idgham) with the following letter (Example: Lam Meem).

 

We, therefore, distinguish once the letter is written as it is pronounced that a shadda follows the letter madd.

 

  Examples:

 

الم is pronounced أَلِف لامِّ مِيْم and recitated:

 

Madd -al lazeem - necessary prolongation sura al baqara

 

 

Alif, Lam, Meem. (2:1)

 

 

طسم is pronounced طَا سِين يمِّيم and recitated:

 

 

طسم 

 

 

Ta, Seen, Meem. (26:1)

 

 

  • al madd al lazeem al Harfee al Mukhaffaf – الْمَدُّ الَّازِم الحَرْفِي الْمُخَفَّف

 

 

The prolongation concerns a single letter, and “mukhaffaf means in the Arabic language: light.

 

These letters, while isolated, contain, when pronounced alphabetically, three, including a long vowel in the middle of an unvocalized consonant.

 

This rule is the same as the previous one. There is only the 3rd condition that differs:

 

  •  The spelling of the letter must be made up of 3 letters (Example: Qaf ق).
  • The middle letter must be a long vowel (Example: Qaf ق).
  •  The 3rd letter cannot be assimilated into the following letter (Example: Qaf ق).

 

Therefore, the letter of madd appears once the letter (detached) is written as it is pronounced.   Examples:

 

ن is pronounced نُوْن:

 

ن

 

Nun (68:1)

 

 

 

ق is pronounced قَاف:

 

ق

 

 

Qaf (50:1)

 

 

يس is pronounced يا سين:

 

يس

 

 

Ya, seen (36:1)

 

 

  • Al Madd al Farqee – الْمَدُّ الفَرْقِي

 

 

It is a prolongation of 6 times, which is obligatory to differentiate the interrogative form with the affirmative form’s interrogation particles with the hamzatu al khabaree.

 

Examples:

 

 

قُلْ آلذَّكَرَيْنِ حَرَّمَ أَمِ الْأُنثَيَيْنِ أَمَّا اشْتَمَلَتْ عَلَيْهِ أَرْحَامُ الْأُنثَيَيْ

 

 

Say, “Is it the two males He has forbidden or the two females or that which the wombs of the two females contain? (6:143)

 

 

قُلْ آللَّـهُ أَذِنَ لَكُمْ

 

 

Say, “Has Allah permitted you [to do so] (10:59)

 

 

آللَّـهُ خَيْرٌ أَمَّا يُشْرِكُونَ

 

 

Is Allah better or what they associate with Him?” (27:59)

This tajweed rules lesson is now finished. The next one will be insha’Allah about the rules of the Qalqala.

 

Al-dirassa centre offers you the possibility to study the tajweed rules easily with a qualified teacher. If you are interested, do not hesitate to consult us.

Recommended Posts

1 Comment

  1. Appreciate


Add a Comment

Your email address will not be published.