A nominal sentence generally comprises two components. The subject of the sentence is called:
and the predicate is called :
|Muhammad is a messenger.|
مُحَمَّدٌ is the subject – اَلْمُبْتَدَأُ and رَسُوْلٌ is the predicate اَلْخَبَرُ
|وَاللَّـهُ سَمِيعٌ عَلِيمٌ|
|And Allah is Hearing and Knowing. (2:224)|
Here اللَّـهُ is the subject – اَلْمُبْتَدَأُ and سَمِيعٌ عَلِيمٌ is the predicate اَلْخَبَرُ.
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The subject – اَلْمُبْتَدَأُ
The subject – اَلْمُبْتَدَأُ is:
- a proper noun – المَعْرِفَةُ
If it is not a proper noun, then the article ال will be prefixed.
|The Qur’an is a book.|
In the nominative case
It will be in agreement with the predicate in terms of number and gender.
|while you were wrongdoers. (2:92)|
- The subject can be a word or a phrase, but it cannot be a verb or a genitive phrase.
|إِنَّ أَكْرَمَكُمْ عِندَ اللَّـهِ أَتْقَاكُمْ|
|Indeed, the noblest of you in the sight of Allah is the most righteous of you. (49:13)|
The predicate – اَلْخَبَرُ
It is always a common noun (النَكِرَةُ), The predicate is:
- It is in nominative case – مَرْفُعٌ
- The predicate generally agrees with the subject in number (singular, dual, or plural) and gender (masculine or feminine).
- When the predicate is a broken plural of non-human object – غَيْر عاقِل the predicate will be feminine singular.
|فَتِلْكَ بُيُوتُهُمْ خَاوِيَةً بِمَا ظَلَمُوا|
|So those are their houses, desolate because of the wrong they had done. (27:52)|
- The predicate – اَلْخَبَرُ can be a proper noun when it is not an adjective. For example:
|You are our protector (2:286)|
أَنتَ is the subject – اَلْمُبْتَدَأُ and مَوْلَانَا is the predicate – اَلْخَبَرُ
|قَالَ أَنَا يُوسُفُ وَهَـٰذَا أَخِي|
|I am Joseph, and this is my brother (12:90)|
- In a nominal sentence with a predicate as a proper noun, a detached pronoun (following the subject in gender and number) is placed between the subject and the predicate.
|وَأُولَـٰئِكَ هُمُ الْمُفْلِحُونَ|
|and it is those who are successful. (2:5)|
- The predicate – اَلْخَبَرُ can be a word, phrase, or a sentence. It can be a genitive phrase.
|الْحَمْدُ لِلَّـهِ رَبِّ الْعَالَمِينَ|
|[All] praise is [due] to Allah, Lord of the worlds – (1:2)|
|وَإِلَـٰهُكُمْ إِلَـٰهٌ وَاحِدٌ|
|And your god is one God. (2:163)|
- If the predicate is a sentence, then a pronoun is used, which points towards the subject.
|الَّذِينَ هُمْ فِي صَلَاتِهِمْ خَاشِعُونَ|
|They who are during their prayer humbly submissive (23:2)|
This Arabic lesson is now finished. The next one will be insha’Allah about the verb in the past tense in Arabic.
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