Simple nominal sentence - Arabic free courses

Introduction

 

A nominal sentence generally comprises two components. The subject of the sentence is called:

 

اَلْمُبْتَدَأُ and the predicate is called : اَلْخَبَرُ

 

For example:

مُحَمَّدٌ  رَسُولٌ

Muhammad is a messenger.

مُحَمَّدٌ is the subject – اَلْمُبْتَدَأُ and رَسُوْلٌ is the predicate اَلْخَبَرُ

 

Here اللَّـهُ is the subject – اَلْمُبْتَدَأُ and سَمِيعٌ عَلِيمٌ is the predicate اَلْخَبَرُ.

 

The subject – اَلْمُبْتَدَأُ

 

 

The subject – اَلْمُبْتَدَأُ is:

 

  • a proper noun – المَعْرِفَةُ

 

If it is not a proper noun, then the article ال will be prefixed.

 

For example:

 

اَلْقُرْآنُ كِتَابٌ

The Qur’an is a book.

In the nominative case

 

It will be in agreement with the predicate in terms of number and gender.

 

For example:

 

وَأَنتُمْ ظَالِمُونَ

while you were wrongdoers. (2:92)

 

  • The subject can be a word or a phrase, but it cannot be a verb or a genitive phrase.

 

For example:

 

 إِنَّ أَكْرَمَكُمْ عِندَ اللَّـهِ أَتْقَاكُمْ

Indeed, the noblest of you in the sight of Allah is the most righteous of you. (49:13)

 

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The predicate – اَلْخَبَرُ

 

It is always a common noun (النَكِرَةُ), The predicate is:

 

  • It is in nominative case – مَرْفُعٌ

  • The predicate generally agrees with the subject in number (singular, dual, or plural) and gender (masculine or feminine).

  • When the predicate is a broken plural of non-human object – غَيْر عاقِل the predicate will be feminine singular.

 

For example:

 

فَتِلْكَ بُيُوتُهُمْ خَاوِيَةً بِمَا ظَلَمُوا

So those are their houses, desolate because of the wrong they had done. (27:52)

 

 

  • The predicate – اَلْخَبَرُ can be a proper noun when it is not an adjective.

 

For example:

 

أَنتَ مَوْلَانَا 

You are our protector (2:286)

 

أَنتَ is the subject – اَلْمُبْتَدَأُ and مَوْلَانَا is the predicate – اَلْخَبَرُ

 

قَالَ أَنَا يُوسُفُ وَهَـٰذَا أَخِي

I am Joseph, and this is my brother (12:90)

 

 

  • In a nominal sentence with a predicate as a proper noun, a detached pronoun (following the subject in gender and number) is placed between the subject and the predicate.

 

Examples:

 

وَأُولَـٰئِكَ هُمُ الْمُفْلِحُونَ

and it is those who are successful. (2:5)

 

 

  • The predicate – اَلْخَبَرُ can be a word, phrase, or a sentence. It can be a genitive phrase.

 

 الْحَمْدُ لِلَّـهِ رَبِّ الْعَالَمِينَ

[All] praise is [due] to Allah, Lord of the worlds – (1:2)

 

 

وَإِلَـٰهُكُمْ إِلَـٰهٌ وَاحِدٌ

And your god is one God. (2:163)

 

  • If the predicate is a sentence, then a pronoun is used, which points towards the subject.

 

For example:

 

الَّذِينَ هُمْ فِي صَلَاتِهِمْ خَاشِعُونَ 

They who are during their prayer humbly submissive (23:2)

 

 

This Arabic lesson is now finished. The next one will be insha’Allah about the verb in the past tense in Arabic.

 

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