Simple nominal sentence - Arabic free courses



A nominal sentence generally comprises two components. The subject of the sentence is called:


اَلْمُبْتَدَأُ and the predicate is called : اَلْخَبَرُ


For example:

مُحَمَّدٌ  رَسُولٌ

Muhammad is a messenger.

مُحَمَّدٌ is the subject – اَلْمُبْتَدَأُ and رَسُوْلٌ is the predicate اَلْخَبَرُ


Here اللَّـهُ is the subject – اَلْمُبْتَدَأُ and سَمِيعٌ عَلِيمٌ is the predicate اَلْخَبَرُ.


The subject – اَلْمُبْتَدَأُ



The subject – اَلْمُبْتَدَأُ is:


  • a proper noun – المَعْرِفَةُ


If it is not a proper noun, then the article ال will be prefixed.


For example:


اَلْقُرْآنُ كِتَابٌ

The Qur’an is a book.

In the nominative case


It will be in agreement with the predicate in terms of number and gender.


For example:


وَأَنتُمْ ظَالِمُونَ

while you were wrongdoers. (2:92)


  • The subject can be a word or a phrase, but it cannot be a verb or a genitive phrase.


For example:


 إِنَّ أَكْرَمَكُمْ عِندَ اللَّـهِ أَتْقَاكُمْ

Indeed, the noblest of you in the sight of Allah is the most righteous of you. (49:13)


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The predicate – اَلْخَبَرُ


It is always a common noun (النَكِرَةُ), The predicate is:


  • It is in nominative case – مَرْفُعٌ

  • The predicate generally agrees with the subject in number (singular, dual, or plural) and gender (masculine or feminine).

  • When the predicate is a broken plural of non-human object – غَيْر عاقِل the predicate will be feminine singular.


For example:


فَتِلْكَ بُيُوتُهُمْ خَاوِيَةً بِمَا ظَلَمُوا

So those are their houses, desolate because of the wrong they had done. (27:52)



  • The predicate – اَلْخَبَرُ can be a proper noun when it is not an adjective.


For example:


أَنتَ مَوْلَانَا 

You are our protector (2:286)


أَنتَ is the subject – اَلْمُبْتَدَأُ and مَوْلَانَا is the predicate – اَلْخَبَرُ


قَالَ أَنَا يُوسُفُ وَهَـٰذَا أَخِي

I am Joseph, and this is my brother (12:90)



  • In a nominal sentence with a predicate as a proper noun, a detached pronoun (following the subject in gender and number) is placed between the subject and the predicate.




وَأُولَـٰئِكَ هُمُ الْمُفْلِحُونَ

and it is those who are successful. (2:5)



  • The predicate – اَلْخَبَرُ can be a word, phrase, or a sentence. It can be a genitive phrase.


 الْحَمْدُ لِلَّـهِ رَبِّ الْعَالَمِينَ

[All] praise is [due] to Allah, Lord of the worlds – (1:2)



وَإِلَـٰهُكُمْ إِلَـٰهٌ وَاحِدٌ

And your god is one God. (2:163)


  • If the predicate is a sentence, then a pronoun is used, which points towards the subject.


For example:


الَّذِينَ هُمْ فِي صَلَاتِهِمْ خَاشِعُونَ 

They who are during their prayer humbly submissive (23:2)



This Arabic lesson is now finished. The next one will be insha’Allah about the verb in the past tense in Arabic.


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