The definite article Alif Lam | tajweed rules

Introduction

 

 

The definitive article Alif-lam”ال” of definition (lam ta’reef) in Arabic is pronounced in 2 different ways depending on the first letter of the word it precedes. The article can either be pronounced as such or assimilated.

 

 

The lunar letters – الحُرُوفُ القَمَرِيَّة

 

When the definite article is found in front of a word starting with a lunar letter, it will be pronounced “الal. These 14 lunar letters are:

 

ه – م – ي – ق – ع – ف – خ – و – ك -ج – ح – غ – ب – ء

 

Examples:

 

الْبَابُ – it is pronounced al-baab

الْحَجُ – it is pronounced al-hajj

 

 

The solar letters – الحُوُوفُ الشَّمْسِيَّة

 

 

The solar letters form the rest of the alphabet and are also 14 in number:

 

  ش – س – ز – ر – ذ – -د -ت – ث – ن – ل – ظ – ط – ض – ص

 

  There are 2 cases:

 

  • When the article Alif Lam is not preceded by a word
  • When the article Alif Lam  is preceded by a word

 

 

When the article Alif Lam is not preceded by a word, it will then be assimilated before the word begins with a solar letter.

 

With these letters, the article will therefore undergo assimilation, i.e. the article will be pronounced “ا“, and the letter starting the word will be doubled.

 

We will insist on the pronunciation of the letter, and in writing, it bears a shadda.

 

 

Examples:

 

الرَّحْمَنُ it is pronounced ar-Rahman

 

الرَّحِيْمُ it is pronounced ar-Raheem

 

الشَّجَرُ it is pronounced ash-shajaru

 

 

When the article Alif Lam is preceded by a word, it is no longer pronounced at all.

 

 

We make a direct connection between the word that precedes it and the word it defines, and this makes reading much easier.

 

Without pronouncing the article, you make a direct connection between the first word and the second word’s solar letter by doubling this one, that is to say, by insisting on this letter.

 

Example:

 

 مِنَ الرَّحمَنِ is pronounced mina r Rahmani

 

 

Application in Surah Al Fatiha

 

Note:

 

  • In red colour are the solar letters.
  • In blue colours are the lunar letters.

 

 

بِسْمِ اللَّـهِ الرَّحْمَـٰنِ الرَّحِيمِ 

 

 

 

 

 الْحَمْدُ لِلَّـهِ رَبِّ الْعَالَمِينَ 

 

 

 

 الرَّحْمَـٰنِ الرَّحِيمِ

 

 

 

 مَالِكِ يَوْمِ الدِّينِ 

 

 

 

 إِيَّاكَ نَعْبُدُ وَإِيَّاكَ نَسْتَعِينُ 

 

 

 

 اهْدِنَا الصِّرَاطَ الْمُسْتَقِيمَ

 

 

 

 صِرَاطَ الَّذِينَ أَنْعَمْتَ عَلَيْهِمْ غَيْرِ الْمَغْضُوبِ عَلَيْهِمْ وَلَا الضَّالِّينَ

 

 

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Recitation of 2 words when the 1st ends with a prolongation letter and the 2nd is a defined word with Alif Lam.

 

Prolongation letters are vowels that are extended by 2 beats in the pronunciation of a word. The extension letters are:

ا – و – ي – ى

With a lunar letter

when a word ending with a letter of prolongation and which is followed by a defined word by Alif Lam, the reading of these two words is done by pronouncing the last letter of the 1st word as a simple letter carrying a vowel (therefore, no prolongation of the vowel ) and ال will not be fully pronounced, we go directly from the last letter of the 1st word to the lâm ل of the 2nd word

Example:

 

فَلْيَعْبُدُوا رَبَّ هَـٰذَا الْبَيْتِ

Let them worship the Lord of this House, (106:3)

 

With a solar letter

A word ending with a letter of prolongation and which is followed by a defined word, the reading of these 2 words is done by pronouncing the last letter of the 1st word as a simple letter carrying a vowel (therefore no prolongation of the vowel ), and ال will not be pronounced, we go directly from the last letter of the 1st word to the solar letter of the 2nd word.

  Example:

وَحُصِّلَ مَا فِي الصُّدُورِ

Indeed, their Lord with them, that Day, is [fully] Acquainted. (100:11)

This tajweed rules lesson is now finished. The next one will be insha’Allah about al isti’adha and al basmala.

 

Al-dirassa centre offers you the possibility to study the tajweed rules easily with a qualified teacher. If you are interested, do not hesitate to consult us.

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