the imperative verb - Arabic free courses

Introduction

 

The imperative is the command form of a verb. The imperative is of two kinds:

  • Direct command
  • Indirect command

The direct command is given to the second person.

 

Examples:

اِضْرِبْ

(you) hit

 

 

اُنْظُرْ

(you) look

 

 

اِشْرَبْ

(you) drink

 

 

 

Sometimes the command is given to the third and the first person. In such a case, it is known as an indirect command – الْأَمْرُ لِلْغَائِبِ و الْمُتَكَلِّمِ.

 

  Examples:

 

لِيَضْرِبْ

He should hit

 

 

لِأَنْصُرْ

I should help

 

 

لِأَشْرَبْ

I should drink

 

 

 

1. Direct command – أَمْرٌ لِلْمُخَاطَبِ

 

As we have said earlier, the direct command is formed from the imperfect second person, masculine and feminine. Now let us observe how the second person imperfect tense is changed to the imperative form of the verb.

 

 

The imperative form of فَعَلَ

 

 

2nd person masculine

 

Singular

تَفْعَلُ

You do / will do

 

Dual

تَفْعَلانِ

You both do / will do

 

Plural

تَفْعَلُوْنَ

You all do / will do

 

 

 

2nd person feminine

 

Singular

تَفْعَلِيْنَ

You do / will do

 

Dual

تَفْعَلانِ

You both do / will do

 

Plural

تَفْعَلْنَ

You all do / will do

 

 

Step 1: From the above imperfect tense table, remove the sign of the second person imperfect tense “تَ” as can be seen from the table below:

 

 

2nd person masculine

 

Singular

فْعَلُ

 

Dual

فْعَلانِ

 

Plural

فْعَلُوْنَ

 

 

2nd person feminine

 

Singular

فْعَلِيْنَ

 

Dual

فْعَلانِ

 

Plural

فْعَلْنَ

 

 

Step 2: Add hamza in the place of ت. If the second radical of the imperfect tense bears’ fatha, or kasrah then the prefixed hamza ا will get kasrah. Suppose the second radical bears dammah the prefixed alif will also bear dammah. Not the there will never be fatha on the prefix hamza, of command.

 

 

2nd person masculine

 

Singular

اِفْعَلُ

 

Dual

اِفْعَلانِ

 

Plural

اِفْعَلُوْنَ

 

 

2nd person feminine

 

Singular

اِفْعَلِيْنَ

 

Dual

اِفْعَلانِ

 

Plural

اِفْعَلْنَ

 

 

This prefixed hamza is called hamzatul waslهَمْزِةُ الْوَصْلِ, the hamza is joining. Though present in the script, it is not read. It joins the preceding word with the succeeding word.

 

Step 3: The last letter of the masculine singular will bear sukoon on it. All other nun’s ن are dropped except that of the feminine plural. Therefore, the command form will be as below:

 

 

2nd person masculine

 

Singular

اِفْعَلْ

Do

 

Dual

اِفْعَلا

Do (you both)

 

Plural

اِفْعَلُوْا

Do (you all)

 

 

 

2nd person feminine

 

Singular

اِفْعَلِيْ

Do

 

Dual

اِفْعَلا

Do (you both)

 

Plural

اِفْعَلْنَ

Do (you all)

 

 

The imperative form of فَتَحَ

 

 

2nd person masculine

 

Singular

اِفْتَحْ

Open

 

Dual

اِفْتَحَا

Open (you both)

 

Plural

اِفْتَحُوْا

Open (you all)

 

 

2nd person feminine

 

 

Singular

اِفْتَحِيْ

Open

 

Dual

اِفْتَحَا

Open (you both)

 

Plural

اِفْتَحْنَ

Open (you all)

 

 

Imperative for of ضَرَبَ

 

2nd person masculine

 

Singular

اِضْرِبْ

Strike

 

Dual

اِضْرِبَا

Strike (you both)

 

Plural

اِضْرِبُوْا

Strike (you all)

 

 

2nd person feminine

 

Singular

اِضْرِبِيْ

Strike

 

Dual

اِضْرِبا

Strike (you both)

 

Plural

اِضْرِبْنَ

Strike (you all)

 

 

Imperative for of نَصَرَ

 

2nd person masculine

 

Singular

اُنْصُرْ

Help

 

Dual

اُنْصُرَا

Help (you both)

 

Plural

اُنْصُرُوا

Help (you all)

 

 

 

2nd person feminine

 

Singular

اُنْصُرِيْ

Help

 

Dual

اُنْصُرَا

Help (you both)

 

Plural

اُنْصُرْنَ

Help (you all)

 

Example of the direct command of the imperative verbs in the Holy Quran

وَأَنِ اعْبُدُونِي ۚ هَـٰذَا صِرَاطٌ مُّسْتَقِيمٌ

 

 

And that you worship [only] Me? This is a straight path. (36:61)

 

 

ارْكُضْ بِرِجْلِكَ ۖ هَـٰذَا مُغْتَسَلٌ بَارِدٌ وَشَرَابٌ 

 

 

[So he was told], “Strike [the ground] with your foot; this is a [spring for] a cool bath and drink.” (38:42)

 

 

 وَقُلْنَا يَا آدَمُ اسْكُنْ أَنتَ وَزَوْجُكَ الْجَنَّةَ

 

 

And We said, “O Adam, dwell, you and your wife, in Paradise (2:35)

 

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2. The Hamazated verb at the imperative form

First radical hamza

The imperative fof Hamzated verbs - Arabic free courses

 

The imperative is formed by removing the sign of the imperfect tense ت. The first radical hamza of the hamzated verb word will also be dropped. No prefix (hamza) is used to make the imperative of such verbs.

 

 

The imperative form of hamzated verb أَكَلَ

 

 

2nd person masculine

 

Singular

كُلْ

Eat

 

Dual

كُلَا

Eat (you both)

 

Plural

كُلُوْا

Eat (you all)

 

 

 

2nd person feminine

 

Singular

كُلِيْ

Eat

 

Dual

كُلَا

Eat (you both)

 

Plural

كُلْنَ

Eat (you all)

 

 

 

Examples of the hamzated verbs of the imperative form used in the Noble Quran

 

 

فَكُلِي وَاشْرَبِي وَقَرِّي عَيْنًا

 

 

So eat and drink and be contented (19:26)

 

 

خُذْ مِنْ أَمْوَالِهِمْ صَدَقَةً تُطَهِّرُهُمْ وَتُزَكِّيهِم بِهَا وَصَلِّ عَلَيْهِمْ

 

 

Take, [O, Muhammad], from their wealth a charity by which you purify them and cause them increase, and invoke [Allah ‘s blessings] upon them (9:103)

 

 

وَكُلَا مِنْهَا رَغَدًا حَيْثُ شِئْتُمَا

 

 

and eat therefrom in [ease and] abundance from wherever you will. (2:35)

 

Some hamzated verbs however deviate from their pattern and take the hamzatul wasl in the imperative form.

 

 

The imperative form of hamzated verb أَذِنَ

 

 

2nd person masculine

 

Singular

اِئْذَنْ

Permit

 

Dual

اِئْذَنَا

Permit (you both)

 

Plural

اِئْذَنُوْا

Permit (you all)

 

 

 

 

2nd person feminine

 

Singular

اِئْذَنِي

Permit

 

Dual

اِئْذَنَا

Permit (you both)

 

Plural

اِئْذَنَّ

Permit (you all)

 

 

 

Second radical Hamza

 

 

The imperative form of the hamzated verb سَأَلَ

 

 

2nd person masculine

 

Singular

سَلْ – اِسْأَلْ

Ask

 

Dual

سَلَا – اِسْأَلَا

Ask (you both)

 

Plural

سَلُوْا- اِسْأَلُوْا

Ask (you all)

 

 
2nd person feminine

 

Singular

سَلِي – اِسْأَلِيْ

Ask

 

Dual

سَلا – اِسْأَلا

Ask (you both)

 

Plural

سَلْنَ – اِسْأَلْنَ

Ask (you all)

 

 

 

 

The pattern for سَأَلَ can be made with or without hamzatul wasl as shown in the table above.

 

 

Example used in the Holy Quran of the hamzated verb

 

 

سَلْ بَنِي إِسْرَائِيلَ كَمْ آتَيْنَاهُم مِّنْ آيَةٍ بَيِّنَةٍ

 

 

Ask the Children of Israel how many a sign of evidence We have given them.  (2:211)

 

 

وَاسْأَلِ الْقَرْيَةَ الَّتِي كُنَّا فِيهَا 

 

 

And ask the city in which we were (12:82)

 

 

Third radical Hamza

 

 

The imperative form of the hamazated verb قَرَأَ

 

 

2nd person masculine

 

Singular

اِقْرَأْ

Read

 

Dual

اِقْرَءَا

Read (you both)

 

Plural

اِقْرَءُوْا

Ask (you all)

 

 

 

 

2nd person feminine

 

Singular

اِقْرَئِي

Read

 

Dual

اِقْرَءَا

Read (you both)

 

Plural

اِقْرَئْنَ

Ask (you all)

 

 

 

Example used in the Noble Quran

 

 

اقْرَأْ بِاسْمِ رَبِّكَ الَّذِي خَلَقَ

 

 

Recite in the name of your Lord who created (96:1)

 

 

3. Imperative form of weak verbs

 

Imperative form of weak verb | Arabic free courses  

 

Weak verbs: First radical و or ى

 

When the first radical of the weak verb is و, the sign of the imperfect tense ت  is removed and the imperative is formed without hamzatul wasl.

 

 

The imperative form of the weak verb  يَئِسَ

 

 

2nd person masculine

 

Singular

إِيْئَسْ

Grieve

 

Dual

إِيْئَسا

Grieve (you both)

 

Plural

إِيْئَسْنُوْا

Brieve (you all)

 

 
 
2nd person feminine

 

Singular

إِيْئَسِي

Grieve

 

Dual

إِيْئَسَا

Grieve (you both)

 

Plural

إِيْئَسْنَ

Brieve (you all)

 

 

 

When the weak verb has the first radical ى, the imperative is formed by removing the sign of the imperfect tense ت  and by adding the hamzatul wasl.

 

 

The imperative form of the weak verb  وَعَدَ

 

 

2nd person masculine

 

Singular

عِدْ

Promise

 

Dual

عِدَا

Promise (you both)

 

Plural

عِدُوْا

Promise (you all)

 

 
2nd person feminine

 

Singular

عِدِي

Promise

 

Dual

عِدَا

Promise (you both)

 

Plural

عِدْنَ

Promise (you all)

 

 

 

Hollow verbs

 

 

Here the imperative is formed without hamzatul wasl and by removing the sign of the imperfect tense ت.

 

 

The imperative form of   قَالَ

 

 

2nd person masculine

 

Singular

قُلْ

Say

 

Dual

قُولَا

Say (you both)

 

Plural

قُولُوْا

Say (you all)

 

 
2nd person feminine

 

Singular

قُولِي

Say

 

Dual

قُولَا

Say (you both)

 

Plural

قُلْنَ

Say (you all)

 

 

The imperative form of  بَاعَ

 

2nd person masculine

 

Singular

بِعْ

Sell

 

Dual

بِيْعَا

You sell (you both)

 

Plural

بِيْعُوْا

Sell (you all)

 

 

2nd person feminine

 

Singular

بِيْعِي

Sell

 

Dual

بِيْعَا

You sell (you both)

 

Plural

بِعْنَ

Sell (you all)

 

 

 

Defective verbs

 

 

Here the sign of the imperfect tense, ت is removed and hamzatul wasl is prefixed to the imperative mode. The weak letters of the verb will be dropped in the masculine and feminine singular.

 

 

The imperative form of the weak verb  دَعَا

 

 

2nd person masculine

 

Singular

أُدْعُ

Call

 

Dual

أُدْعُوَا

Call  (you both)

 

Plural

أُدْعُوْا

Call (you all)

 

 

 

2nd person feminine

 

 

Singular

أُدْعِي

Call

 

Dual

أُدْعُوَا

Call  (you both)

 

Plural

أُدْعُوْنَ

Call (you all)

 

 

The imperative form of   رَمَى

 

 

2nd person masculine

 

Singular

إِرْمِ

Throw

 

Dual

إِرْمِيَا

Throw (you both)

 

Plural

إِرْمُوْا

Throw (you all)

 

 


2nd person feminine

 

Singular

إِرْمِي

Throw

 

Dual

إِرْمِيَا

Throw (you both)

 

Plural

إِرْمِيْنَ

Throw (you all)

 

 

The imperative form of the weak verb  لَقِيَ

 

 

2nd person masculine

 

Singular

اِلْقَ

Meet

 

Dual

اِلْقَيَا

Meet (you both)

 

Plural

اِلْقُوْا

Meet (you all)

 

 

 

2nd person feminine

 

Singular

اِلْقِي

Meet

 

Dual

اِلْقَيَا

Meet (you both)

 

Plural

اِلْقَيْنَ

Meet (you all)

 

 

 

The imperative form of the weak verb  رَأَى

 

 

2nd person masculine

 

Singular

رَ

See

 

Dual

رَيَا

See (you both)

 

Plural

رَوْا

See (you all)

 

 
 
2nd person feminine

 

Singular

رَيْ

See

 

Dual

رَيَا

See (you both)

 

Plural

رَيْنَ

See (you all)

 

 

Because رَأَى is a hamzated weak verb it has an irregularity in its pattern.

 

Example of the weak verbs at the imperative form used in the Holy Quran

 

كُلُوا وَارْعَوْا أَنْعَامَكُمْ ۗ إِنَّ فِي ذَٰلِكَ لَآيَاتٍ لِّأُولِي النُّهَىٰ 

 

 

Eat [therefrom] and pasture your livestock. Indeed, in that are signs for those of intelligence. (20:54)

 

 

قُلْ فَأْتُوا بِالتَّوْرَاةِ فَاتْلُوهَا إِن كُنتُمْ صَادِقِينَ

 

 

“So bring the Torah and recite it, if you should be truthful.” (3:93)

 

 

 ادْعُ إِلَىٰ سَبِيلِ رَبِّكَ بِالْحِكْمَةِ وَالْمَوْعِظَةِ الْحَسَنَةِ

 

 

Invite to the way of your Lord with wisdom and good instruction, and argue with them in a way that is best. (16:125)

 

 

4. The imperative form of a doubly weak verb

 

Doubly weak verbs | Imperfect tense - Arabic free courses

Here the imperative is formed by dropping the weak letter ى and the sign of the imperfect tense ت.

 

The imperative form of وَقَى

 

2nd person masculine

 

Singular

قِ

Save

 

Dual

قِيَا

Save (you both)

 

Plural

قُوْا

Save (you all)

 

 

2nd person feminine

 

Singular

قِيْ

Save

 

Dual

قِيَا

Save (you both)

 

Plural

قِيْنَ

Save (you all)

 

 

 

Examples used in the Holy Quran

 

  وَمِنْهُم مَّن يَقُولُ رَبَّنَا آتِنَا فِي الدُّنْيَا حَسَنَةً وَفِي الْآخِرَةِ حَسَنَةً وَقِنَا عَذَابَ النَّارِ

 

 

But among them is he who says, “Our Lord, give us in this world [that which is] good and in the Hereafter [that which is] good and protect us from the punishment of the Fire.” (2:201)

 

 

Imperative for of doubled verbs

 

The imperative is made by prefixing hamzatul wasl after dropping the sign of the imperfect tense ت.

 

The imperative form of غَضَّ

 

 

2nd person masculine

 

Singular

أُغْضُضْ

Lower your voice /eyes

 

Dual

أُغْضُضَا

Lower (you both) your voice /eyes

 

Plural

أُغْضُضُوا

Lower (you all) your voice /eyes

 

00:00
 
2nd person feminine

 

Singular

أُغْضُضِ

Lower your voice /eyes

 

Dual

أُغْضُضَا

Lower (you both) your voice /eyes

 

Plural

أُغْضُضْنَ

Lower (you all) your voice /eyes

 

 

 

Examples used in the Holy Quran

 

  وَاقْصِدْ فِي مَشْيِكَ وَاغْضُضْ مِن صَوْتِكَ ۚ إِنَّ أَنكَرَ الْأَصْوَاتِ لَصَوْتُ الْحَمِيرِ

 

 

And be moderate in your pace and lower your voice; indeed, the most disagreeable of sounds is the voice of donkeys.” (31:19)

 

5. Indirect Command of the imperative verb

 

The imperative verb | indirect Command - Arabic free courses

 

Introduction

 

 

The indirect command is given to the third and first-person imperfect tense. This is done by adding prefix لِ of the jussive to the third and first-person imperfect tense. It is called lam of command – لَامُ الْأَمْرِ.

 

 

Indirect form of the imperative verb – فَعَلَ

 

 

3rd person masculine

 

Singular

لِيَفْعَلْ

He should do

 

Dual

لِيَفْعَلَا

They both should do

 

Plural

لِيَفْعَلُوْا

They all should do

 

 

 

3rd person feminine

 

Singular

لِيَفْعَلْ

He should do

 

Dual

لِيَفْعَلَا

They both should do

 

Plural

لِيَفْعَلْنَ

They all should do

 

 

 

1st person masculine/feminine

 

Singular

لِأَفْعَلْ

I should do

 

Dual

 

Plural

لِنَفْعَلْ

We should do

 

 

When lam of command لِ is prefixed to the imperfect tense, the last letter of the third person singular and first-person singular and plural will bear a sukoon.

 

The ن of the dual and plurals are dropped except for third person feminine plural.

 

 

The example of the indirect Command used in the Holy Quran

 

 

 

وَنَادَوْا يَا مَالِكُ لِيَقْضِ عَلَيْنَا رَبُّكَ ۖ قَالَ إِنَّكُم مَّاكِثُونَ

 

And they will call, “O Malik, let your Lord put an end to us!” He will say, “Indeed, you will remain.” (43:77)

 

 

Note: When lam of command لِ is preceded by a و or a ف, the kasrah of the لِ is changed to sukoon.

 

 

Examples of the indirect Command used in the Holy Quran

 

 

 

فَلْيَعْبُدُوا رَبَّ هَـٰذَا الْبَيْتِ

 

 

Let them worship the Lord of this House, (106:3)

 

 

قُلْ مَن كَانَ فِي الضَّلَالَةِ فَلْيَمْدُدْ لَهُ الرَّحْمَـٰنُ مَدًّا ۚ

 

 

Say, “Whoever is in error – let the Most Merciful extend for him an extension [in wealth and time] (19:75)

 

 

This Arabic lesson is now finished. The next one will be insha’Allah about the transitive and intransitive verbs in Arabic.

 

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