Al-Lahn – اللَّحْنُ is the mistake while reciting the Quran. We speak of lahn when we deviate from the correctness in the recitation.
There are 2 types of recitation mistakes (lahn):
- اللَّحْنُ الْجَلِي: Al lahn al jaliy: Serious and obvious mistakes: that is to say, changing the meaning of the verses or changing a letter or removing it, which leads to sin.
- الَّحْنُ الخَفِي: Al lahn al khafiy: These are the minor and subtle mistakes. That is to say, when we do not give the required quality to the letter.
اللَّحْنُ الْجَلِي – Serious and obvious mistakes
This is a huge or obvious mistake that goes against the essential rules of the Arabic language. It may or may not change the meaning of the sentence.
It is called الجَلِي al jaliy (obvious) because it is an error which seems obvious as well for the specialists of the tajweed as for the uninitiated.
We speak of an obvious mistake when changing from one letter to another or from one haraka to another (change of vocalized vowels).
The obvious mistake also occurs if the characteristics (sifat) of the letters are not respected. This fault is obvious even if it does not cause a contradiction in the Arabic language.
The following examples are considered an obvious mistake:
- To say الحَمْدَ instead of الحَمْدُ in the sura al Fatiha.
- To pronounce the letter ت instead of ط.
Moreover, when this kind of mistake occurs, the person can commit kufr, which is really serious.
Thus the scholars have judged this kind of wrongful mistakes and the one who commits al lahn al jaliy sins.
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الَّحْنُ الخَفِي: Al lahn al khafiy: the minor and subtle mistakes
This mistake does not have the same status as the first category.
This is a so-called subtle or imperceptible error that is not in opposition to the Arabic language rules, nor does it change the meaning. Still, it occurs when it is in disagreement with a specific rule Tajweed rule.
It is called الخفِي – al-khafiy because only initiates in tajweed can perceive this error.
We speak of al lahn al-khafiy during the neglect of certain reading rules, such as the abandonment of the madd (prolongation rules), or of a rule of ikhfâ, or do not do the ghunna (nasal noise) when required.
The scholars of the science of Tajweed consider the lahn al-khafiy to be makruh (detestable).
However, there is still a difference on this subject because some scholars also judge this kind of fault haram (prohibited) but to a lower degree than the serious fault.
Say أُنْزِلَ without applying the ikhfa rule over the letter ن by pronouncing it as a single ن. This is not a mistake that changes the meaning of the word, but it is a breach of the reading rules that must be corrected.