The Noon Sakeena and Tanween | tajweed rules

Definition

The letter noon – نْ without a vowel is called “noon as sakeena“. The tanween is the name given in Arabic to the double vocalization at the end of words and whose sound is that of noon as sakeena:

 

 

ٌ   ً ٍ

 

Its symbol is the doubling of the vowel (two damma, two fatha or two kasra). The noon as sakeena is hidden in writing, but it is spoken orally.

 

  Examples:

 

أَلِيْمًا is pronounced Aleeman

أَلِيمٍ is pronounced Aleemeen

أَلِيمٌ is pronounced Aleemoon

 

 

The letter noon without vowel or the tanween have two exit points and follow the same Tajweed rules:

 

  • The first is when the نْ is pronounced clearly:  the tongue’s tip comes to rest on the upper teeth’ incisors’ root.
  • The second is when it is concealed or equated with nasalization –ghunna: the tongue does not touch the gum. It remains in the middle of the mouth.

There are 4 rules concerning noûn sâkina or tanwîn to apply as appropriate when they are followed by one of the letters of the alphabet:

 

  • الإِظهَار (al idhar), the clarification
  •  الإدْغَامُ (al idgham), assimilation
  •   الإِقْلابُ(al iqlab), the substitution
  •   الإِخْفَاءُ (al ikhfa), concealment

الإِظْهَارُ الْحَلْقِي - al idhar:  the clarification

In the Arabic language, al idhar means highlighting, clarity.

 

This rule is applied when the noon as sakeena or the tanween is followed by one of the following 6 guttural letters throat letters:

 

 

 

أ – ه – ع – ح – غ – خ

 

 

Technically, these letters do not modify the pronunciation of noon as sakeena or the tanween.

 

  • Noon as sakeena or the tanween must be pronounced clearly in front of these letters, whether in a single word (for noon as-sakeena) or between two words (for noon as sakeena and the tanween).
  • The nasalization-ghunna is then partial.

 

 

 Al-Idhar of noon as-sakeena in one word:

 

  Examples:  

 

وَهُمْ يَنْهَوْنَ عَنْهُ وَيَنْأَوْنَ عَنْهُ ۖ وَإِن يُهْلِكُونَ إِلَّا أَنفُسَهُمْ وَمَا يَشْعُرُونَ

 

 

And they prevent [others] from him and are [themselves] remote from him. And they do not destroy except themselves, but they perceive [it] not. (6:26)

 

 

صِرَاطَ الَّذِينَ أَنْعَمْتَ عَلَيْهِمْ غَيْرِ الْمَغْضُوبِ عَلَيْهِمْ وَلَا الضَّالِّينَ

 

 

The path of those upon whom You have bestowed favour, not of those who have evoked [Your] anger or of those who are astray. (1:7)

 

 

 Al-Idhar of noon as-sakeena between two words:

 

  Examples:

 

تَنزِيلٌ مِّنْ حَكِيمٍ حَمِيدٍ

 

 

from a [Lord who is] Wise and Praiseworthy. (41:42)

 

 

إِنَّ الَّذِينَ آمَنُوا وَالَّذِينَ هَادُوا وَالنَّصَارَىٰ وَالصَّابِئِينَ مَنْ آمَنَ بِاللَّـهِ وَالْيَوْمِ الْآخِرِ وَعَمِلَ صَالِحًا

 

 

Indeed, those who believed and those who were Jews or Christians or Sabeans [before Prophet Muhammad] – those [among them] who believed in Allah and the Last Day and did righteousness  (2:62)

 

 

 Al-Idhar of the tanween:

 

  Examples:  

 

فَبَدَّلَ الَّذِينَ ظَلَمُوا قَوْلًا غَيْرَ الَّذِي قِيلَ لَهُمْ فَأَنزَلْنَا عَلَى الَّذِينَ ظَلَمُوا رِجْزًا مِّنَ السَّمَاءِ بِمَا كَانُوا يَفْسُقُونَ

 

 

And [recall] when We said, “Enter this city and eat from it wherever you will in [ease and] abundance, and enter the gate bowing humbly and say, ‘Relieve us of our burdens.’ We will [then] forgive your sins for you, and We will increase the doers of good [in goodness and reward].” (2:58)

 

 

وَاللَّـهُ عَلِيمٌ حَكِيمٌ 

 

 

 And Allah is Knowing and Wise. (4:26)

 

 

al Idhar of Noon as-Sakeena and the tanween with the letter أ used in the Holy Quran

 

 

وَهُمْ يَنْهَوْنَ عَنْهُ وَيَنْأَوْنَ عَنْهُ ۖ وَإِن يُهْلِكُونَ إِلَّا أَنفُسَهُمْ وَمَا يَشْعُرُونَ

 

 

And they prevent [others] from him and are [themselves] remote from him. And they do not destroy except themselves, but they perceive [it] not. (6:26)

 

 

وَلَمْ يَكُن لَّهُ كُفُوًا أَحَدٌ

 

 

Nor is there to Him any equivalent.” (112:4)

 

 

al Idhar of Noon as-Sakeena and the tanween with the letter ح used in the Holy Quran

 

 

فَصَلِّ لِرَبِّكَ وَانْحَرْ

 

 

So pray to your Lord and sacrifice [to Him alone]. (108:2)

 

 

وَاللَّـهُ عَلِيمٌ حَكِيمٌ 

 

 

And Allah is Knowing and Wise. (4:26)

 

 

al Idhar of Noon as-Sakeena and the tanween with the letter خ used in the Holy Quran

 

 

الَّذِي أَطْعَمَهُم مِّن جُوعٍ وَآمَنَهُم مِّنْ خَوْفٍ

 

 

Who has fed them, [saving them] from hunger and made them safe, [saving them] from fear. (106:4)

 

 

إِنَّ اللَّـهَ كَانَ عَلِيمًا خَبِيرًا

 

 

 Allah is ever Knowing and Acquainted [with all things]. (4:35)

 

 

فَسَيُنْغِضُونَ إِلَيْكَ رُءُوسَهُمْ وَيَقُولُونَ مَتَىٰ هُوَ

 

 

Then they will nod their heads toward you and say, “When is that?” (17:51)

 

 

al Idhar of Noon as-Sakeena and the tanween with the letter ع used in the Holy Quran

 

 

صِرَاطَ الَّذِينَ أَنْعَمْتَ عَلَيْهِمْ غَيْرِ الْمَغْضُوبِ عَلَيْهِمْ وَلَا الضَّالِّينَ

 

 

The path of those upon whom You have bestowed favour, not of those who have evoked [Your] anger or of those who are astray. (1:7)

 

 

وَلَهُمْ عَذَابٌ عَظِيمٌ

 

 

And for them is a great punishment. (2:7)

 

 

al Idhar of Noon as-Sakeena and the tanween with the letter ه used in the Holy Quran

 

 

 

وَهُمْ يَنْهَوْنَ عَنْهُ وَيَنْأَوْنَ عَنْهُ ۖ وَإِن يُهْلِكُونَ إِلَّا أَنفُسَهُمْ وَمَا يَشْعُرُونَ

 

 

And they prevent [others] from him and are [themselves] remote from him. And they do not destroy except themselves, but they perceive [it] not. (6:26)

 

 

 سَلَامٌ هِيَ حَتَّىٰ مَطْلَعِ الْفَجْرِ

 

 

Peace it is until the emergence of dawn. (97:2)

 

الإِدْغَامُ – al idgham: the assimilation

 

 

In the Arabic language, al idgham means interlocking, insertion.

 

We apply this rule when the noon as sakeena or the tanween is followed by one of the 6 letters of al idgham:

 

ر – ل – م – ن – و – ي

 

 

Technically, the rule of al idgham consists of making the letter of noon as sakeena or tanween fit together with one of these 6 vocalized letters (mutaharika) to form only one redoubled letter (muchadada).

 

Al idgham is divided into 2 categories:

 

  • الإدْغَام بغُنَّة: the idgham with nasalisation (ghunna)
  • الإدْغَام بغَيْرِ غُنَّة : the idgham without nasalization

 

 

الإدْغَام بغُنَّة: the idgham with nasalisation (ghunna)

 

 

We call this idgham: “naqees” because it remains the characteristic of the ghunna (the nasal sound) of the noon as sakeena and of the tanween during the idgham.

 

These rules apply to all readings, except for Khalaf’s version of Hamza’s reading, which removes the ghunna during the idgham of the noon as sakeena and of the tanween in wâw و and yâ ي. For the yâ ي in Doury’s version of the reading of Al Kassai according to the way of Abi Othman Ad Dareer.

 

As to the other readings, especially the Hafs versions of ‘Asim and Warsh of Nafi’, there is no disagreement about this, and Allah is the most learned.

 

This idgham can only be done between two words when the noon as sakeena and of the tanween is followed by one of these 4 letters:

 

م – ن – و – ي

 

Technically, the noon as sakeena and of the tanween therefore disappears. Still, the following letter is pronounced with a complete nasal, of 2 times or harakatayn (time for the pronunciation of 2 vowels).

 

Example of Al-idgham of the noon as sakeena and the tanween with the letter ن

 

وَمَا بِكُم مِّن نِّعْمَةٍ فَمِنَ اللَّـهِ

 

 

And whatever you have of favour – it is from Allah. (16:53)

 

 

عَامِلَةٌ نَّاصِبَةٌ

 

 

Working [hard] and exhausted. (88:3)

 

 

Example of Al-idgham of the noon as sakeena and the tanween with the letter م

 

 

أَيَحْسَبُونَ أَنَّمَا نُمِدُّهُم بِهِ مِن مَّالٍ وَبَنِينَ

 

 

Do they think that what We extend to them of wealth and children (23:55)

 

 

فِي عَمَدٍ مُّمَدَّدَةٍ

 

 

In extended columns. (104:9)

 

 

Example of Al-idgham of the noon as sakeena and of the tanween with the letter و

 

 

وَمَا لَكُم مِّن دُونِ اللَّـهِ مِن وَلِيٍّ وَلَا نَصِيرٍ

 

 

And you have not other than Allah any protector or any helper. (29:22)

 

 

تَبَّتْ يَدَا أَبِي لَهَبٍ وَتَبَّ 

 

 

May the hands of Abu Lahab be ruined, and ruined, is he. (111:1)

 

 

Example of Al-idgham of the noon as sakeena and of the tanween with the letter ي

 

وَمَن يَعْمَلْ مِنَ الصَّالِحَاتِ وَهُوَ مُؤْمِنٌ فَلَا يَخَافُ ظُلْمًا وَلَا هَضْمًا

 

 

But he who does of righteous deeds while he is a believer will neither fear injustice nor deprivation. (20:112)

 

 

 يَوْمَئِذٍ يَصْدُرُ النَّاسُ أَشْتَاتًا لِّيُرَوْا أَعْمَالَهُمْ

 

 

That Day, the people will depart separated [into categories] to be shown [the result of] their deeds. (99:6)

 

 

Note: This rule will apply in 2 different words, the first word will end with noon as sakeena or tanween, and the next word will start with one of the letters of al idgham.

 

If noon as sakeena or tanween is followed by one of the 6 letters of idgham in the same word, we do not apply the rule al idgham, but that of al idhar.

 

 

4 words in the holy Quran are exceptions:

 

 

The word الدُّنْيَا:

 

 

بَلْ تُؤْثِرُونَ الْحَيَاةَ الدُّنْيَا

 

 

But you prefer the worldly life, (87:16)

 

 

The word قِنْوَانٌ:

 

 

وَمِنَ النَّخْلِ مِن طَلْعِهَا قِنْوَانٌ دَانِيَةٌ وَجَنَّاتٍ مِّنْ أَعْنَابٍ

 

 

And from the palm trees – of its emerging fruit are clusters hanging low. And [We produce] gardens of grapevines (6:99)

 

 

The word صِنْوَانٌ:

 

 

وَنَخِيلٌ صِنْوَانٌ وَغَيْرُ صِنْوَانٍ يُسْقَىٰ بِمَاءٍ 

 

 

and palm trees, [growing] several from a root or otherwise, watered with one water; (13:4)

 

 

The word بُنْيَانٌ:

 

 

إِنَّ اللَّـهَ يُحِبُّ الَّذِينَ يُقَاتِلُونَ فِي سَبِيلِهِ صَفًّا كَأَنَّهُم بُنْيَانٌ مَّرْصُوصٌ

 

 

Indeed, Allah loves those who fight in His cause in a row as though they are a [single] structure joined firmly. (61:4)

 

 

الإدْغَام بغَيْرِ غُنَّة : the idgham without nasalization

 

 

We call this idgham: “kaameel” (complete) because the noon as sakeena as well as its sifat disappears entirely during assimilation, and this concerns these 2 letters:

 

ر – ل

 

 

Technically, in this rule of idgham, the noon as sakeena or the tanween is erased, and we go directly to the following letter without involving the ghunna. There is no ghunna and the letter of lâm ل or râ ر, are reinforced with shadda. The letter noon ن is directly nested in the following letter.

 

Example of Al-idgham without ghunna of the noon as sakeena and the tanween with the letter ر

 

 

أُولَـٰئِكَ عَلَىٰ هُدًى مِّن رَّبِّهِمْ

 

 

Those are upon [right] guidance from their Lord, (2:5)

 

 

فَهُوَ فِي عِيشَةٍ رَّاضِيَةٍ

 

 

He will be in a pleasant life. (101:7)

 

 

Example of Al-idgham without ghunna of the noon as sakeena and the tanween with the letter ل

 

 

وَلَمْ يَكُن لَّهُ كُفُوًا أَحَدٌ 

 

 

Nor is there to Him any equivalent.” (112:4)

 

 

وَدَمٍ لَّبَنًا خَالِصًا سَائِغًا لِّلشَّارِبِينَ 

 

 

And blood – pure milk, palatable to drinkers. (16:66)

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الإقْلابُ - the substitution

In the Arabic language, al iqlab is changing something from its initial form, the transformation of its original nature.

 

 

Regarding the rule that the majority know under the name of iqlab, it should be known that the Arabic term (that is to say specifically to classical Arabic) and the correct term, as underlined by the scholars of tajweed, it is is al qalb.

 

The noon as sakeena or the tanween and the ba ب are very close to the same exit point of letters. This is the reason why there is no substitution only for the letter ba ب.

 

We, therefore, transform noon as sakeena or the tanween into meem م to facilitate diction.

 

Technically, al iqlab consists of changing the noon as sakeena or the tanween by a meem م with ikhfa when followed by a letter ba ب, performing a complete or total ghunna of 2 beats. Thus, we replace the noon with the letter meem hidden by a ghunna.

 

It is necessary to tighten the two lips during the pronunciation of the meem, then release the two lips with idhar, that is to say, without ghunna.

 

 

Example of al iqlab – الإِقْلاب for Noone as-Sakeena

 

 

 كَلَّا ۖ لَيُنبَذَنَّ فِي الْحُطَمَةِ 

 

 

No! He will surely be thrown into the Crusher. (104:4)

 

 

لَئِن لَّمْ يَنتَهِ لَنَسْفَعًا بِالنَّاصِيَةِ

 

 

No! If he does not desist, We will surely drag him by the forelock – (96:15)

 

 

الإِخْفَاءُ -(al ikhfa), concealment

This is the pronunciation of noon as sakeena or tanween which is between al idhar and al idgham, by keeping the complete ghunna of 2 times in noon as sakeena or tanween.

 

When followed by the remaining 15 letters after deleting the letters from al idhar, al idgham et al iqlab:

 

ج – ذ – د – ث – ت – ض – ص – ش – س – ز – ك – ق – ف – ظ – ط

 

 

Technically, we pronounce noon as sakeena or tanween in a way that is between clarification (al idhar) and assimilation (al idgham), without pressing the letter (shadda), but with nasal noise (ghunna) of 2 beats. Then one of the following 15 letters is pronounced clearly and distinctly. It is applied both inside the word and between two words.

 

 

الإِخْفَاءُal ikhfa of noon as sakeena or tanween with the letter ت

 

 

وَلَا أَنتُمْ عَابِدُونَ مَا أَعْبُدُ

 

 

Nor are you worshippers of what I worship. (109:3)

 

 

 وَأَعَدَّ لَهُمْ جَنَّاتٍ تَجْرِي تَحْتَهَا الْأَنْهَارُ خَالِدِينَ فِيهَا أَبَدًا

 

 

and He has prepared for them gardens beneath which rivers flow, wherein they will abide forever. (9:100)

 

 

الإِخْفَاءُal ikhfa of noon as sakeena or tanween with the letter ث

 

 

فَأَمَّا مَن ثَقُلَتْ مَوَازِينُهُ 

 

 

Then as for one whose scales are heavy [with good deeds], (101:6)

 

 

 تَائِبَاتٍ عَابِدَاتٍ سَائِحَاتٍ ثَيِّبَاتٍ وَأَبْكَارًا

 

 

repentant, worshipping, and travelling – [ones] previously married and virgins. (66:5)

 

 

الإِخْفَاءُal ikhfa of noon as sakeena or tanween with the letter د

 

 

وَقَدْ خَابَ مَن دَسَّاهَا 

 

 

And he has failed who instills it [with corruption]. (91:10)

 

 

وَمِنَ النَّخْلِ مِن طَلْعِهَا قِنْوَانٌ دَانِيَةٌ وَجَنَّاتٍ مِّنْ أَعْنَابٍ

 

 

And from the palm trees – of its emerging fruit are clusters hanging low. And [We produce] gardens of grapevines (6:99)

 

 

الإِخْفَاءُal ikhfa of noon as sakeena or tanween with the letter ذ

 

 

 مَن ذَا الَّذِي يَشْفَعُ عِندَهُ إِلَّا بِإِذْنِهِ

 

 

Who is it that can intercede with Him except by His permission? (2:255)

 

 

سَيَصْلَىٰ نَارًا ذَاتَ لَهَبٍ

 

 

He will [enter to] burn in a Fire of [blazing] flame (111:3)

 

 

الإِخْفَاءُal ikhfa of noon as sakeena or tanween with the letter ج

 

 

الَّذِي أَطْعَمَهُم مِّن جُوعٍ وَآمَنَهُم مِّنْ خَوْفٍ

 

 

Who has fed them, [saving them] from hunger and made them safe, [saving them] from fear. (106:4)

 

 

فَصَبْرٌ جَمِيلٌ

 

 

so patience is most fitting (12:83)

 

 

الإِخْفَاءُal ikhfa of noon as sakeena or tanween with the letter ز

 

 

قَدْ أَفْلَحَ مَن زَكَّاهَا

 

 

He has succeeded who purifies it, (91:9)

 

 

يَوْمَ يُنفَخُ فِي الصُّورِ ۚ وَنَحْشُرُ الْمُجْرِمِينَ يَوْمَئِذٍ زُرْقًا

 

 

The Day the Horn will be blown. And We will gather the criminals, that Day, blue-eyed. (20:12)

 

 

الإِخْفَاءُal ikhfa of noon as sakeena or tanween with the letter س

 

 

 إِنَّ الْإِنسَانَ لَفِي خُسْرٍ

 

 

Indeed, mankind is in loss, (103:2)

 

 

 تَائِبَاتٍ عَابِدَاتٍ سَائِحَاتٍ ثَيِّبَاتٍ وَأَبْكَارًا

 

 

repentant, worshipping, and travelling – [ones] previously married and virgins. (66:5)

 

 

الإِخْفَاءُal ikhfa of noon as sakeena or tanween with the letter ش

 

 

مِن شَرِّ مَا خَلَقَ

 

 

From the evil of that which He created (113:2)

 

 

وَمِنكُم مَّن يُتَوَفَّىٰ وَمِنكُم مَّن يُرَدُّ إِلَىٰ أَرْذَلِ الْعُمُرِ لِكَيْلَا يَعْلَمَ مِن بَعْدِ عِلْمٍ شَيْئًا

 

 

And among you is he who is taken in [early] death, and among you is he who is returned to the most decrepit [old] age so that he knows, after [once having] knowledge, nothing. (22:5)

 

 

الإِخْفَاءُal ikhfa of noon as sakeena or tanween with the letter ص

 

 

 الَّذِينَ هُمْ عَن صَلَاتِهِمْ سَاهُونَ

 

 

[But] who are heedless of their prayer – (107:5)

 

 

 وَأَمَّا عَادٌ فَأُهْلِكُوا بِرِيحٍ صَرْصَرٍ عَاتِيَةٍ 

 

And as for ‘Aad, they were destroyed by a screaming, violent wind (69:6)

 

 

الإِخْفَاءُal ikhfa of noon as sakeena or tanween with the letter ض

 

 

لَّيْسَ لَهُمْ طَعَامٌ إِلَّا مِن ضَرِيعٍ

 

 

For them there will be no food except from a poisonous, thorny plant (88:6)

 

 

وَالَّذِينَ اتَّخَذُوا مَسْجِدًا ضِرَارًا وَكُفْرًا

 

 

And [there are] those [hypocrites] who took for themselves a mosque for causing harm and disbelief  (9:107)

 

 

الإِخْفَاءُal ikhfa of noon as sakeena or tanween with the letter ط

 

 

فَأَمَّا مَن طَغَىٰ

 

 

So as for he who transgressed (79:37)

 

 

 يَا أَيُّهَا النَّاسُ كُلُوا مِمَّا فِي الْأَرْضِ حَلَالًا طَيِّبًا

 

 

O mankind, eat from whatever is on earth [that is] lawful and good (2:168)

 

 

الإِخْفَاءُal ikhfa of noon as sakeena or tanween with the letter ظ 

 

 

فَلْيَنظُرِ الْإِنسَانُ مِمَّ خُلِقَ

 

 

So let man observe from what he was created. (86:5)

 

 

مَثَلُ مَا يُنفِقُونَ فِي هَـٰذِهِ الْحَيَاةِ الدُّنْيَا كَمَثَلِ رِيحٍ فِيهَا صِرٌّ أَصَابَتْ حَرْثَ قَوْمٍ ظَلَمُوا أَنفُسَهُمْ فَأَهْلَكَتْهُ

 

 

The example of what they spend in this worldly life is like that of a wind containing frost which strikes the harvest of a people who have wronged themselves and destroys it. (3:117)

 

 

الإِخْفَاءُal ikhfa of noon as sakeena or tanween with the letter ف

 

 

وَتَكُونُ الْجِبَالُ كَالْعِهْنِ الْمَنفُوشِ 

 

 

And the mountains will be like wool, fluffed up. (101:5)

 

 

وَعِلْمًا فَاغْفِرْ لِلَّذِينَ تَابُوا 

 

 

and knowledge, so forgive those who have repented (40:7)

 

 

الإِخْفَاءُal ikhfa of noon as sakeena or tanween with the letter ق

 

 

 إِلَّا الَّذِينَ تَابُوا مِن قَبْلِ أَن تَقْدِرُوا عَلَيْهِمْ

 

 

Except for those who return [repenting] before you apprehend them. (5:34)

 

 

وَاشْتَرَوْا بِهِ ثَمَنًا قَلِيلً

 

 

and exchanged it for a small price (3:187)

 

 

الإِخْفَاءُal ikhfa of noon as sakeena or tanween with the letter ك

 

 

 أَرَأَيْتَ إِن كَانَ عَلَى الْهُدَىٰ

 

 

Have you seen if he is upon guidance (96:11)

 

 

وَمَغْفِرَةٌ وَرِزْقٌ كَرِيمٌ 

 

 

 and forgiveness and noble provision. (8:4)

 

 

Notes:

 

  • The tongue should not touch the palate when applying this rule, during the nasal noise (ghunna). Al ikhfa is an intermediate level between al idgham and al idhar.
  • The great difficulty of this rule lies in the fact that the tongue moves from the point of exit (al makhraj) of the letter noon to go towards the point of exit of the letter which follows.

 

The tongue should be neither too close nor too far from the point of articulation (makharij) of the letter noon .

 

  • The 2-beat ghunna will be pronounced either with al tafkhim (emphatically) or with al tarqiq (light) because it is identified with the letter that follows.

 

The ghunna will be done emphatically if the following letter is emphatic (mufakhama):

 

ظ – ط – ق – ض -ص

 

A ghunna will be made thinly if the following letter is light (muraqaqa):

 

ف – ج – ذ – د – ث – ت – ش – س – ز – ك

 

When the letter noon as sakeena or tanween is followed by the two letters: ق – ك, the sound must come out only from the nose unlike the rest of the letters.

 

 

This tajweed rules lesson is now finished. The next one will be insha’Allah about the rules of the letters Meem and Noon when they carry a shadda.

Al-dirassa centre offers you the possibility to study the tajweed rules easily with a qualified teacher. If you are interested, do not hesitate to consult us.

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