The passive verb in Arabic | Arabic free course

Introduction to the passive verb

 

 

The known verb اَلْفِعْلُ الْمَعْرُوْفُ is the active voice of the verb. Here we know the subject, i.e., the doer of the verb is specified. Also, we have discussed these kinds of verbs in all the preceding chapters on the pattern of فَعَلَ – فَعِلَ – فَعُلَ. Nevertheless,  in Arabic, it also exists what we call the unknown verb or a passive verb.

 

  Example:  

 

 أَن سَخِطَ اللَّـهُ عَلَيْهِمْ وَفِي الْعَذَابِ هُمْ خَالِدُونَ

 

That Allah has become angry with them, and in the punishment, they will abide eternally. (5:80)

 

 

حَتَّىٰ إِذَا بَلَغَ مَغْرِبَ الشَّمْسِ

Until, when he reached the setting of the sun (18:86)

 

 

Thus, we call in Arabic the passive voice of the verb:  الَفِعْلُ المَجْهُوْلُ (unknown). Here we do not know the subject, i.e., the doer is not specified. Also,  from a transitive verb – الْفِعْلُ الْمُتَعَدَّي, we usually form the passive verb.

 

 

It has two components – the passive verb and the object as the subject اَلْفَاعِلُ is not present. Thus, the object will take the harakah of the subject, i.e., dammah. Also in Arabic, we call the deputy of subject نَائِبُ الفَاعِل.

 

Example:

 

وَوُضِعَ الْكِتَابُ

And the record [of deeds] will be placed [open] (18:49)

 

الْكِتَابُ = نَائِبُ الفَاعِل وُضِعَ= المَجْهُوْلُ  

 

In Arabic, we form the passive verb by changing the harakah of the active participle فَعَلَ – فَعِلَ – فَعُلَ to فُعِلَ. Thus, the change is standard for all verbs. In more, the dammah characterizes the change on the first radical and kasrah on the second radical.

 

1. The passive verb of consonants – الصَّحِيحُ

 

The passive verb of consonants - Arabic free courses

 

Table of رُفِعَ:

 

3rd person masculine

 

 

Singular

رُفِعَ

He was raised

Dual

رُفِعَا

They two were raised.

Plural

رُفِعُوا

They all were raised.

 

 

 

 

3rd person feminine

 

 

Singular

رُفِعَتْ

She was raised

Dual

رُفِعَتَا

They two were raised.

Plural

رُفِعْنَ

They all were raised.

 

 

 

2nd person masculine

 

 

Singular

رُفِعْتَ

You were raised

Dual

رُفِعْتُمَا

You two were raised.

Plural

رُفِعْتُمْ

You all were raised.

 

 

 

2nd person feminine

 

 

Singular

رُفِعْتِ

You were raised

Dual

رُفِعْتُمَا

You two were raised.

Plural

رُفِعْتُنَّ

You all were raised.

 

 

First-person (masculine/feminine)

 

 

Singular

رُفِعْتُ

I was raised

Dual

Plural

رُفِعْنَا

We were raised.

 

 

Table of نُصِرَ and سُمِعَ:

 

 

 

3rd person masculine

 

 

Singular

نُصِرَ

He was helped

Dual

نُصِرَا

They two were helped.

 

Plural

نُصِرُوا

They all were helped.

 

3rd person feminine

 

 

Singular

نُصِرَتْ

She was helped

Dual

نُصِرَتَا

They two were helped.

 

Plural

نُصِرَنَ

They all were helped.

 

 

2nd person masculine

 

 

Singular

نُصِرَتَ

You were helped

Dual

نُصِرَتُمَا

You two were helped.

 

Plural

نُصِرَتُمْ

You all were helped.

 

 

2nd person feminine

 

 

Singular

نُصِرَتِ

You were helped

Dual

نُصِرَتُمَا

You two were helped.

 

Plural

نُصِرَتُنَّ

You all were helped.

 

 

First-person (masculine/feminine)

 

 

Singular

نُصِرَتُ

I was helped

Dual

 

Plural

نُصِرَنَا

We were helped

 

 

Examples used in the Holy Quran

 

 

وَجُمِعَ الشَّمْسُ وَالْقَمَرُ

And the sun and the moon are joined (75:9)

 

 إِنَّ الَّذِينَ يُحَادُّونَ اللَّـهَ وَرَسُولَهُ كُبِتُوا كَمَا كُبِتَ الَّذِينَ مِن قَبْلِهِمْ

Indeed, those who oppose Allah and His Messenger are abased as those before them were abased. (58:5)

 

 وَفُتِحَتِ السَّمَاءُ فَكَانَتْ أَبْوَابًا

And the heaven is opened and will become gateways. (78:19)

 

 

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2. Passive Hamzated verb

 

 

Passive Hamzated verb - Arabic free courses

 

 

Introduction to the Passive Hamzated verb

 

 

The Passive Hamzated verb is when hamza أ comes as first, second, or third radical as in أَكَلَسَأَلَ or قَرَأَ the passive voice is on the same pattern as that of فُعِلَ. Thus, the first radical bears a dammah and the second radical bears a kasrah . The following tables demonstrate their conjugation.

 

 

Table of the passive hamzated verb  أُمِرَ:

 

 

3rd person masculine

 

 

Singular

أُمِرَ

He was commanded

Dual

أُمِرَا

They were two commanded

 

Plural

أُمِرُوْا

They all were commanded

 

 
3rd person feminine

 

 

Singular

أُمِرَتْ

She was commanded

Dual

أُمِرَتَا

They were two commanded

 

Plural

أُمِرْنَ

They all were commanded

 

 
2nd person masculine

 

 

Singular

أُمِرْتَ

You were commanded

Dual

أُمِرْتُمَا

You were two commanded

 

Plural

أُمِرْتُمْ

You all were commanded

 

 
2nd person feminine

 

 

Singular

أُمِرْتِ

You were commanded

Dual

أُمِرْتُمَا

You were two commanded

 

Plural

أُمِرْتُنَّ

You all were commanded

 

 

 
First-person (masculine/feminine)

 

 

Singular

أُمِرْتُ

I was commanded

Dual

 

Plural

أُمِرْنَا

We all were commanded

 

 

 

Table of the passive hamzated verb  سُئِلَ:

 

 

3rd person masculine

 

 

Singular

سُئِلَ

He was asked

Dual

سُئِلَا

They two were asked

 

Plural

سُئِلُوْا

They all were asked

 

 
3rd person feminine

 

 

Singular

سُئِلَتْ

She was asked

Dual

سُئِلَتَا

They two were asked

 

Plural

سُئِلْنَ

They all were asked

 

 

 
2nd person masculine

 

 

Singular

سُئِلْتَ

You were asked

Dual

سُئِلْتُمَا

You two were asked

 

Plural

سُئِلْنَ

You all were asked

 

 

 
2nd person feminine

 

 

Singular

سُئِلْتِ

You were asked

Dual

سُئِلْتُمَا

You two were asked

 

Plural

سُئِلْتُنَّ

You all were asked

 

 

 

First-person (masculine/feminine)

 

 

Singular

سُئِلْتُ

I was asked

Dual

 

Plural

سُئِلْنَا

We all were asked

 

 

Table of the passive hamzated verb  هُزِأَ:

 

 

3rd person masculine

 

 

Singular

هُزِأَ

He was ridiculed

Dual

هُزِأَا

They two were ridiculed

 

Plural

هُزِأُوْا

They all were ridiculed

 

 
3rd person feminine

 

 

Singular

هُزِأَ تْ

She was ridiculed

Dual

هُزِأَ تَا

They two were ridiculed

 

Plural

هُزِأَ نَ

They all were ridiculed

 

 
2nd person masculine

 

 

Singular

هُزِأَ تَ

You were ridiculed

Dual

هُزِأَ تَا

You two were ridiculed

 

Plural

هُزِأَ تُمْ

You all were ridiculed

 

 
2nd person feminine

 

 

Singular

هُزِأَ تِ

You were ridiculed

Dual

هُزِأَ تَا

You two were ridiculed

 

Plural

هُزِأَ تُنَّ

You all were ridiculed

 

 
First-person (masculine/feminine)

 

 

Singular

هُزِأَ تُ

I was ridiculed

Dual

 

Plural

هُزِأَ نَا

We all were ridiculed

 

 

3. Passive weak verb

Passive weak verb - arabic free courses

 

Passive weak Assimilated verb – المِثَالى

 

When و comes as the first radical in place of ف in the active voice, the pattern will be the same as فُعِلَ, and we will not observe any changes.

 

Table of the passive weak verb وُعِدَ

 

 

3rd person masculine

 

Singular

وُعِدَ

He was promised

Dual

وُعِدَا

They two were promised.

Plural

وُعِدُوْا

They all were promised.

 
3rd person feminine

 

Singular

وُعِدَتْ

She was promised

Dual

وُعِدَتَا

They two were promised.

Plural

وُعِدْنَ

They all were promised.

 
2nd person masculine

 

Singular

وُعِدْتَ

You were promised

Dual

وُعِدْتُمَا

You two were promised.

Plural

وُعِدْتُمْ

You all were promised.

 
2nd person feminine

 

Singular

وُعِدْتِ

You were promised

Dual

وُعِدْتُمَا

You two were promised.

Plural

وُعِدْتُنَّ

You all were promised.

 
First-person (masculine/feminine)

 

Singular

وُعِدْتُ

I was promised

Dual

وُعِدْتُمَا

You two were promised.

Plural

وُعِدْنَا

We were promised

Verbs with the first radical “ى” are usually intransitive verbs – اَلْفِعْلُ اللَّازِمُ. Hence passive voice of these verbs cannot be formed. Example: يَئِسَ

 

Passive weak Hollow verbs – الأَجْوَفُ

 

When و comes as the second radical in place of ع as in قَالَ, the passive should be قُوِلَ according to the rule, but it is read as قِيْلَ for easy pronunciation.

 

Table of the passive hollow verb قِيْلَ

 

3rd person masculine

Singular

قِيْلَ

He was told

Dual

قِيْلَا

They two were told

Plural

قِيْلُوْا

They were all told

 
3rd person feminine

 

Singular

قِيْلَتْ

She was told

Dual

قِيْلَتَا

They two were told

Plural

قُلْنَ

They were all told

 
2nd person masculine

 

Singular

قُلتَ

You were told

Dual

قُلتُمَا

Theyboth were told

Plural

قُلتُمْ

You were all told

 
2nd person feminine

 

Singular

قُلتِ

You were told

Dual

قُلتُمَا

Theyboth were told

Plural

قُلتُنَّ

You were all told

 
First-person (masculine/feminine)

 

Singular

قُلتُ

I was told

Dual

Plural

قُلنَا

We were all told

As we see from the above table, the passive voice of the third person feminine plural is قُلْنَ. The pattern will then carry forward as the past tense table.

 

Table of the passive hollow verb خِيْفَ

 

3rd person masculine

 

Singular

خِيْفَ

He was feared

Dual

خِيْفَا

They two were feared.

Plural

خِيْفُوْا

They all were feared

 
3rd person feminine

 

Singular

خِيْفَتْ

She was feared

Dual

خِيْفَتَا

They two were feared.

Plural

خِفْنَ

They all were feared

 
2nd person masculine

 

Singular

خِفْتَ

You were feared

Dual

خِفْتُمَا

You both were feared.

Plural

خِفْتُمْ

You all feared

 
2nd person feminine

 

Singular

خِفْتِ

You were feared

Dual

خِفْتُمَا

You both were feared.

Plural

خِفْتُنَّ

You all feared

 
First-person (masculine/feminine)

 

Singular

خِفْتُ

I was feared

Dual

Plural

خِفْنَا

We were feared

As خَافَ is an exception to the pattern of قَالَ, the third person feminine plural will be خِفْنَ, and then the table will carryforwards as in the past tense.

 

When ى comes as second radical in place of ع as in بَاعَ, the passive voice should have been يبُيِعَ according to the general rule. However, it is writt

en as بِيْعَ for easy pronunciation.

 

Table of the passive hollow verb خِيْفَ

 

3rd person masculine

 

Singular

بِيْعَ

He was sold

Dual

بِيْعَا

They two were sold

Plural

بِيْعُوْا

They all were sold

 
3rd person feminine

 

Singular

بِيْعَتْ

She was sold

Dual

بِيْعَتَا

They two were sold

Plural

بِعْنَ

They all were sold

 
2nd person masculine

 

Singular

بِعْتَ

You were sold

Dual

بِعْتُمَا

You two were sold

Plural

بِعْتُمْ

You all were sold

 
2nd person feminine

 

Singular

بِعْتِ

You were sold

Dual

بِعْتُمَا

You two were sold

Plural

بِعْتُنَّ

You all were sold

 
First-person (masculine/feminine)

 

Singular

بِعْتُ

I was sold

Dual

Plural

بِعْنَا

We all were sold

 

From the above pattern, we see that the passive verb of the third person feminine plural is بِعْنَ and the pattern following it is the same as in the past tense.

Passive weak defective verbs – النَّاقِصُ

When و comes in place of ل as in دَعَا, then its passive verb instead of being دُعِوَ will be written as دُعِىَ.

 

Table of the passive defective verb دُعِيَ

 

3rd person masculine

 

Singular

دُعِىَ

He was called

Dual

دُعِيَا

They two were called

Plural

دُعُوْا

They all were called

 
3rd person feminine

 

Singular

دُعِيَتْ

She was called

Dual

دُعِيَتَا

They two were called

Plural

دُعِيْنَ

They all were called

 
2nd person masculine

 

Singular

دُعِيْتَ

You were called

Dual

دُعِيْتُمَا

You two were called

Plural

دُعِيْتُمْ

You all were called

 
2nd person feminine

 

Singular

دُعِيْتِ

You were called

Dual

دُعِيْتُمَا

You two were called

Plural

دُعِيْتُنَّ

You all were called

 
First-person (masculine/feminine)

 

Singular

دُعِيْتُ

I was called

Dual

Plural

دُعِيْنَا

We all were called

 

When ى comes in place of ل as in رَمَى and لَقَى, the passive verb pattern follows رَمِيَ respectively as according to the standard pattern of فُعِلَ.

4. Passive voice of the double lettered verb

 

double lettered verbs - passive voice | Arabic free courses

 

Introduction

 

Double lettered verbs (Doubly weak verbs) such as وَقَى become وُقِيَ according to فُعِلَ and will follow the standard pattern.

 

Double lettered verbs – الْمُضَاعَفُ

 

Double lettered verbs like عَضَّ become عُضَّ and follow the standard pattern.

 

Table of the double lettered verb عُضَّ

 

3rd person masculine

 

Singular

عُضَّ

He was bitten

Dual

عُضَّا

They two were bitten.

Plural

عُضُّوْا

They all were bitten.

00:00
 
3rd person feminine

 

Singular

عُضَّتْ

She was bitten

Dual

عُضَّتَا

They two were bitten.

Plural

عُضِضْنَ

They all were bitten.

 
2nd person masculine

 

Singular

عُضِضْتُ

You were bitten

Dual

عُضِضْتُمَا

You two were bitten.

Plural

عُضِضْتُمْ

You all were bitten.

 
2nd person feminine

 

Singular

عُضِضْتِ

You were bitten

Dual

عُضِضْتُمَا

You two were bitten.

Plural

عُضِضْتُنَّ

You all were bitten.

 
First-person (masculine/feminine)

 

Singular

عُضِضْتُ

I was  bitten

Dual

Plural

عُضِضْنَا

We all were bitten.

 

Examples of Double lettered verbs used in the Holy Quran:

 

وَإِذَا قِيلَ لَهُمْ لَا تُفْسِدُوا فِي الْأَرْضِ قَالُوا إِنَّمَا نَحْنُ مُصْلِحُونَ

And when it is said to them, “Do not cause corruption on the earth,” they say, “We are but reformers.” (2:11)

 

وَقِيلَ يَا أَرْضُ ابْلَعِي مَاءَكِ وَيَا سَمَاءُ أَقْلِعِي وَغِيضَ الْمَاءُ وَقُضِيَ الْأَمْرُ وَاسْتَوَتْ عَلَى الْجُودِيِّ

 

And it was said, “O earth, swallow your water, and O sky, withhold [your rain].” And the water subsided, and the matter was accomplished, and the ship came to rest on the [mountain of] Judiyy. (11:44)

 

وَأَشْرَقَتِ الْأَرْضُ بِنُورِ رَبِّهَا وَوُضِعَ الْكِتَابُ وَجِيءَ بِالنَّبِيِّينَ وَالشُّهَدَاءِ وَقُضِيَ بَيْنَهُم بِالْحَقِّ وَهُمْ لَا يُظْلَمُونَ

 

 

And the earth will shine with the light of its Lord, and the record [of deeds] will be placed, and the prophets and the witnesses will be brought, and it will be judged between them in truth, and they will not be wronged. (39:69)

 

وَوُضِعَ الْكِتَابُ فَتَرَى الْمُجْرِمِينَ مُشْفِقِينَ مِمَّا فِيهِ 

 

 

And the record [of deeds] will be placed [open], and you will see the criminals fearful of that within it (18:49)

 

قُلْ إِنِّي نُهِيتُ أَنْ أَعْبُدَ الَّذِينَ تَدْعُونَ

 

 

Say, “Indeed, I have been forbidden to worship those you invoke besides Allah.” (6:56)

 

You have now completed this Arabic lesson. The next one will be insha’Allah about the double emphasis in Arabic.

 

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