The plural in arabic

Introduction

 

There are two types of plurals in Arabic:  

 

Sound plural – اَلْجَمْعُ السَّالِمُ

 

 

  Broken plural: اَلْجَمْعُ الْمُكَسَّرُ

 

The sound Plural – اَلْجَمْعُ السَّالِمُ

 

 

Masculine sound plural

 

 

In the formation of sound plural, the original form of the noun does not change. It has different masculine and feminine forms and is formed by suffixing dammah, waw with sukoon, and noon with fatha in the nominative:

وْنَ -ُ

and Kasra, yaa with sukoon and non with fatha:

يْنَ -ِ

in the accusative and genitive cases to the end of the masculine nouns.

 

Examples:

 

Nominative case:

Singular

 

مُسْلِمٌ 

a muslim

 

Dual

 

مُسْلِمَانِ

two muslims

 

Plural

مُسلِمُوْنَ

Des musulmans

 

 

Accusative case:

 

Singular

مُسْلِمًا

A muslim

 

Dual

مُسْلِمِيْنَ

Two muslims

 

Plural

مُسْلِمِيْنَ

Muslims

 

 

 

Genitive case:

 

Singular

 

مُسْلِمٍ

A Muslim

 

Dual

 

مُسْلِمِيْنَ

Two muslims

 

Plural

 

مُسْلِمِيْنَ

Muslims

 

 

Feminine sound plural

 

For feminine plurals fatha, alif, and taa with tanween dammah:

اتٌ -َ

is suffixed for nominative, and fatha, alif, and taa with tanwin kasrah:

اتٍ-ِ

for accusative and genitive cases.

 

Examples:

 

Nominative case:

 

Singular

 

مُسْلِمَةٌ

a muslim woman

 

 

Dual

مُسْلِمَتانِ

Two muslim women

 

Plural

مُسْلِماتٌ

Muslim women

 

 

Accusative case:

 

Singular

 

مُسْلِمَةً

Muslim woman

 

Dual

مُسْلِمَتَيْنِ

Two Muslim

 

Plural

مُسْلِماتٍ

Muslim women

 

 

 

Genitive case:

 

Singular

مُسْلِمَةٍ

Muslim woman

 

Plural

مُسْلِماتٍ

Muslim women

 

Note: In the singular form, we observe that the nominative, accusative, and genitive cases are evident by the harakat (short vowel marks) on the last letter of:

مُسْلِمٌ

tanwin dammah

, tanwin fatha

and tanween kasrah

 

In the dual and plural forms, the grammatical cases (i’rab – الإِعْرَابُ) are not evident with harakat but represent the nominative, accusative, and genitive cases with the use of letters as :

 

وْنَ -ِ يْنَ -َانِ -ُ -ِ وْنَ -َ وْنَ

 

Example from the Noble Quran:

 

 

إِنَّ الْمُسْلِمِينَ وَالْمُسْلِمَاتِ وَالْمُؤْمِنِينَ وَالْمُؤْمِنَاتِ وَالْقَانِتِينَ وَالْقَانِتَاتِ وَالصَّادِقِينَ وَالصَّادِقَاتِ وَالصَّابِرِينَ وَالصَّابِرَاتِ وَالْخَاشِعِينَ وَالْخَاشِعَاتِ وَالْمُتَصَدِّقِينَ وَالْمُتَصَدِّقَاتِ وَالصَّائِمِينَ وَالصَّائِمَاتِ وَالْحَافِظِينَ فُرُوجَهُمْ وَالْحَافِظَاتِ وَالذَّاكِرِينَ اللَّـهَ كَثِيرًا وَالذَّاكِرَاتِ أَعَدَّ اللَّـهُ لَهُم مَّغْفِرَةً وَأَجْرًا عَظِيمًا

 

Indeed, the Muslim men and Muslim women, the believing men and believing women, the obedient men and obedient women, the truthful men and truthful women, the patient men and patient women, the humble men and humble women, the charitable men and charitable women, the fasting men and fasting women, the men who guard their private parts and the women who do so, and the men who remember Allah often and the women who do so – for them Allah has prepared forgiveness and a great reward. (33:35)

Book your free trial lesson

 

In addition to the free Arabic courses, we offer you to begin your journey to fluency in Arabic right now for free with a graduated Egyptian teacher.

The broken plural – اَلْجَمْعُ الْمُكَسَّرُ

 

 

 

Unlike sound plurals, where the original form of the word is retained, the broken plural is formed by making internal changes to the noun’s structure by means of deletions, prefixes, and suffixes.

 

Examples of broken plurals for the word book – كِتَابٌ is as follows:

 

 

Nominative case:

 

Singular

 

كِتَابٌ

Book

 

 

Dual

 

كِتَابَانِ

Two books

 

Plural

 

 

كُتُبٌ

Books

 

 

 

Accusative case:

 

Singular

 

كِتَابًا

Book

 

 

Dual

 

كِتابَيْنِ

Two books

 

 

Plural

 

كُتُبًا

Books

 

 

 

Genitive case:

 

Singular

 

كِتَابٍ

Book

 

Dual

 

كِتابَيْنِ

Two books

 

 

Plural

 

كُتُبٍ

Books

 

 

Here we see that the dual formation is the same as that of the sound plural in the nominative, accusative, and genitive cases.

 

Listed below are some examples of broken plurals:

 

Singular

مُفْرَد

Plural

جَمْع

وَلَدٌ أَوْلادٌ

Boy Boys
رَبٌّ أَرْبَابٌ

Lord Lords
مَالٌ أَمْوَالٌ

Property Properties
نَهْرٌ أَنْهَارٌ

River Rivers
زَوجٌ أَزْواجٌ

Wife Wives
رِجْلٌ أَرْجُلٌ

Foot Feet
عَيْنٌ عُيُوْنٌ

Eye Eyes
سَيْفٌ سُيُوْفٌ

Sword Swords
رَجُلٌ رِجَالٌ

Man Men
اِمْرَءَةٌ نِسَاءٌ

Woman Women
أَمْرٌ أُمُورٌ

Command/affair Commands/affairs
نَبِيٌّ أَنْبِيَاءٌ

Prophet  Prophets
رُوْحٌ أَرْوَاحٌ

Soul Souls
شَهْرٌ شُهُورٌ

Month Months
مَدِيْنَةٌ مُدُنٌ

City Cities
سَفِينَةٌ سُفُنٌ

Ship Ships
قَلْبٌ قُلُوْبٌ

Heart Hearts
جَبَلٌ جِبَالٌ

Mountain Mountains
بَيْتٌ بُيُوْتٌ

House Houses
قَلَمٌ أَقْلَامٌ

Pen Pens

Examples from the Noble Quran:

 

 وَتِلْكَ الْأَيَّامُ نُدَاوِلُهَا بَيْنَ النَّاسِ

And these days [of varying conditions] We alternate among the people (3:140)
وَجَنَّاتٌ تَجْرِي مِن تَحْتِهَا الْأَنْهَارُ

And gardens beneath which rivers flow [in Paradise] (3:136)
أَأَرْبَابٌ مُّتَفَرِّقُونَ خَيْرٌ أَمِ اللَّـهُ الْوَاحِدُ الْقَهَّارُ

are separate lords better or Allah, the One, the Prevailing? (12:39)

وَالْجِبَالَ أَوْتَادًا

And the mountains as stakes? (78:7)
لَهُمْ قُلُوبٌ لَّا يَفْقَهُونَ بِهَا

They have hearts with which they do not understand (7:179)
فَانكِحُوا مَا طَابَ لَكُم مِّنَ النِّسَاءِ

then marry those that please you of [other] women (4:3)

This Arabic lesson is now finished. The next one will be insha’Allah about the pronouns in Arabic.

 

Al-dirassa center offers you the possibility to study the Arabic language easily with a qualified teacher. If you are interested, do not hesitate to consult us.

 

Recommended Posts

5 Comments


Add a Comment

Your email address will not be published.