The letter hamza | Tajweed rules

In the Holy Quran, there are two types of hamza:

  • hamza al wasl: this hamza is always at the beginning of a word. We pronounce it when it is at the beginning of the verse but we do not pronounce it when it is in the middle of a verse.

 

 

Examples:

 

  1. In this example, we pronounce the hamza al wasl:  

 

اهْدِنَا الصِّرَاطَ الْمُسْتَقِيمَ

Guide us to the straight path – (1:6)

  2. In this example, we do not pronounce the hamza al wasl:  

 وَامْرَأَتُهُ حَمَّالَةَ الْحَطَبِ

May the hands of Abu Lahab be ruined, and ruined is he. (111:1)

 

  • hamza al qat’: you can find this type of hamza at the beginning, middle or end of a word. It is always pronounced whatever is its position in the word or in the verse.

 

  Example:  

إِيَّاكَ نَعْبُدُ وَإِيَّاكَ نَسْتَعِينُ 

It is You we worship and You we ask for help. (1:5)

1. Hamza al Qat’

 

  • It is written and recited in all situations when you begin or continue the recitation of a verse.
  • it can be located at the beginning, middle or the end of the nouns, verbs or particles.
  • This hamza ء is always written in the Holy Quran

 

The hamza ء when it carries a vowel mark and after the definite article ال

 

The hamza ء and its vowel marks after the definite article ال is prolonged of two beats only when the hamza ء is placed between the alif – ا and lam – ل.

 

 

Example:  

the hamza al qat in Surah al baqara

and of the Hereafter, they are certain [in faith]. (2:4)

 

  • When the letter hamza and its vowel marks cannot be prolonged by 2 beats, the hamza is placed on the Alif, and not between the alif and Lam.

 

 

Example:   the hamza not porlongated in sura al baqara

And when it is said to them, “Do not cause corruption on the earth,” they say, “We are but reformers.” (2:11)

 

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2. Hamza al Wasl

 

Hamza al Wasl is pronounced when it is located at the beginning of the word with which we start or resume the recitation.

Thus, it is no longer pronounced if you do not make a pause on the word that precedes it.

 

With a fatha

 

It is pronounced with the short vowel mark fatha when it is started to be read while it is part of the definite article “ال“.

  Example:  

الْحَمْدُ لِلَّهِ رَبِّ الْعَالَمِينَ

[All] praise is [due] to Allah, Lord of the worlds – (1:2)

 

With a Kasra

 

It is pronounced with the short vowel mark kasra when you start reading with the hamza al wasl when it is located at the beginning of a verb whose third letter is carrying by a fatha.

 

 

Example:  

اقْرَأْ بِاسْمِ رَبِّكَ الَّذِي خَلَقَ

Recite in the name of your Lord who created – (96:1)

 

With a damma

 

It is pronounced with the short vowel mark damma when it is started to be read when it is located at the beginning of an imperative verb whose third letter is surmounted by a compulsory damma.

 

Example:  

 ادْخُلُوهَا بِسَلَامٍ آمِنِينَ 

[Having been told], “Enter it in peace, safe [and secure].” (15:46)

 

Unstable

 

The hamza al wasl is not pronounced when one does not pause on the word which precedes it because the letter surmounted by a sukoon that follows it can be pronounced by relying on the last one. letter of the previous word: it therefore no longer needs the hamza.

  Example:  

إِنَّمَا يَأْمُرُكُم بِالسُّوءِ وَالْفَحْشَاءِ 

He only orders you to evil and immorality (2:169)

 

In an expression

 

When we start with the hamza al wasl, it is pronounced with the short vowels fatha, kasra or damma.

If it is located inside an expression, it is never pronounced because in any case, it is not possible to resume reading with this hamza located in the middle of the expression.

 

Examples:

 

وَبِالْحَقِّ أَنزَلْنَاهُ وَبِالْحَقِّ نَزَلَ ۗ وَمَا أَرْسَلْنَاكَ إِلَّا مُبَشِّرًا وَنَذِيرًا

And with the truth We have sent the Qur’an down, and with the truth it has descended. And We have not sent you, [O Muhammad], except as a bringer of good tidings and a warner. (17:105)

 

وَاللَّهُ مُحِيطٌ بِالْكَافِرِينَ 

But Allah is encompassing of the disbelievers. (2:19)

 

The interrogative hamza: أ

 

If an interrogative hamza precedes a hamza al wasl accompanied by a kasra, the hamza al wasl is eliminated and the interrogative hamza أَ remains surmounted by a fatha.

 

 

Examples:  

قُلْ أَتَّخَذْتُمْ عِندَ اللَّهِ عَهْدًا

” Say, “Have you taken a covenant with Allah? (2:80)

 

أَطَّلَعَ الْغَيْبَ أَمِ اتَّخَذَ عِندَ الرَّحْمَـٰنِ عَهْدًا

Has he looked into the unseen, or has he taken from the Most Merciful a promise? (79:18)

 

وَمَنْ أَظْلَمُ مِمَّنِ افْتَرَىٰ عَلَى اللَّهِ كَذِبًا أَوْ كَذَّبَ بِآيَاتِهِ ۗ إِنَّهُ لَا يُفْلِحُ الظَّالِمُونَ

And who is more unjust than one who invents about Allah a lie or denies His verses? Indeed, the wrongdoers will not succeed. (6:21)

 

أَصْطَفَى الْبَنَاتِ عَلَى الْبَنِينَ

Has He chosen daughters over sons? (37:153)

 

أَتَّخَذْنَاهُمْ سِخْرِيًّا أَمْ زَاغَتْ عَنْهُمُ الْأَبْصَارُ

Is it [because] we took them in ridicule, or has [our] vision turned away from them?” (38:63)

 

 قَالَ يَا إِبْلِيسُ مَا مَنَعَكَ أَن تَسْجُدَ لِمَا خَلَقْتُ بِيَدَيَّ ۖ أَسْتَكْبَرْتَ أَمْ كُنتَ مِنَ الْعَالِينَ

[Allah] said, “O Iblees, what prevented you from prostrating to that which I created with My hands? Were you arrogant [then], or were you [already] among the haughty?” (38:75)

 

سَوَاءٌ عَلَيْهِمْ أَسْتَغْفَرْتَ لَهُمْ أَمْ لَمْ تَسْتَغْفِرْ لَهُمْ 

It is all the same for them whether you ask forgiveness for them (63:6)

 

When hamza al wasl is preceded by a prolongation letter

 

hamza al wasl is always spoken at the beginning of a verse, of a sentence, but it is no longer pronounced when it is in the middle of a verse, of a sentence.

Also, when hamza al wasl is in the middle of a verse and is preceded by a prolongation letter, it is not pronounced and the prolongation letter is, in this case, not pronounced.

The letter accompanying the prolongation letter is only pronounced with one beat.

 

Examples:

 

قُلْ يَا أَيُّهَا الْكَافِرُونَ 

Say, “O disbelievers, (109:1)

 

فَلْيَعْبُدُوا رَبَّ هَـٰذَا الْبَيْتِ

Let them worship the Lord of this House, (106:3)

 

كَلَّا ۖ لَيُنبَذَنَّ فِي الْحُطَمَةِ

No! He will surely be thrown into the Crusher. (104:4)

 

 

The pronunciation of an indefinite word (ending with a tanween) followed by hamza al wasl

 

When an indefinite word (which ends with tanween) followed by hamza al wasl which itself is followed by a letter carrying sukoon, the noon of the tanween will not be pronounced as noon with sukoon.

Hamza al wasl is not pronounced in the middle of a verse and in writing, hamza al wasl is between two letters bearing sukoûn (the noon sakeen of the tanween and the letter which is quoted after hamza al wasl).

 

 

Example:  

وَالْوَزْنُ يَوْمَئِذٍ الْحَقُّ

And the weighing [of deeds] that Day will be the truth (7:8)

 

Orally, hamza al wasl not being pronounced, noon sakeen of the tanween is therefore followed by a letter bearing sukoon.

As one cannot read two letters each carrying sukoon, it will be necessary to put in noon sakeen the vowel kasra. Moreover, when a word ending in tanween and which is followed by a definite word (starting with alif lam), in the Arabic language, there does not exist in the reading, two sukoon side by side (two sukoon cannot be followed). So it will be necessary to put the vowel mark kasra in the noon of tanween and make the connection with alif lam.

 

Examples:

 

وَقَالَ الَّذِينَ كَفَرُوا إِنْ هَـٰذَا إِلَّا إِفْكٌ افْتَرَاهُ وَأَعَانَهُ عَلَيْهِ قَوْمٌ آخَرُونَ

nd those who disbelieve say, “This [Qur’an] is not except a falsehood he invented, and another people assisted him in it.” (25:4)

 

كَذَّبَتْ قَوْمُ لُوطٍ الْمُرْسَلِينَ

The people of Lot denied the messengers (2:160)

 

This tajweed rules lesson is now finished. The next one will be insha’Allah about the rules of the assimilation of two letters.

 

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