The letter mîm م (and meem as sakeena – مْ) is labial, that is to say, that it is a letter that corresponds to the sound emitted during the contact of the two lips.
In the case of meem, when wearing a sukoon and is followed by a letter, 3 possible rules apply:
- الإِخْفاء – al ikhfa, concealment
- الإدْغَام – al idgham, assimilation
- الإظْهَار – al idhar, the clarification
الإخْفاءُ الشَّفَوِي– al ikhfa ashafawee – the labial concealment of the letter Meem As Sakeena
We call this al ikhfa ashafawee from the simple fact that it comes out of the two lips.
Some scholars of Tajweed have seen al idhar there, but this remains a very singular opinion.
This rule is applied when a letter ba ب follows the meem as sakeena.
Technically, the meem is concealed, that is to say, that it is pronounced in a way between clarification (al idhar) and assimilation (al idgham), careful to do the full nasal of 2 beats.
The vocalized letter ba – ب is pronounced clearly. Here we put the lips without pressing.
There is a discrepancy, ikhtilaf of the scholars on the way, and the 2 ways are good:
- either stick the lips together
- either leave a minimal distance (like letting a sheet pass, for example)
تَرْمِيهِم بِحِجَارَةٍ مِّن سِجِّيلٍ
Striking them with stones of hard clay, (105:4)
أَلَمْ يَعْلَم بِأَنَّ اللَّـهَ يَرَىٰ
Does he not know that Allah sees? (96:14)
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الإِدْغَامُ الشَّفَوِي – the labial assimilation of the letter Meem As Sakeena
This idgham is also called al idgham al mutamathilayn or al idgham al mithlayn as Sagheer because the two letters which follow are identical.
This rule is applied when the meem as sakeena is followed by another م which carries a harakah (with a vowel: kasra, fatha or damma),
Technically, the two meem merge to make one pronounced with a shadda and with a complete nasal as it should be of 2 beats.
Here we press on both lips.
Note: The 2nd meem carries a shadda in the Koranic script, except we know that a word in the Arabic language never begins with a shadda.
In fact, it is a sign in the Koranic writing that shows us that one must apply al idgham ash-shafawee.
فِي قُلُوبِهِم مَّرَضٌ فَزَادَهُمُ اللَّـهُ مَرَضًا
In their hearts is a disease, so Allah has increased their disease; (2:10)
الَّذِي أَطْعَمَهُم مِّن جُوعٍ وَآمَنَهُم مِّنْ خَوْفٍ
Who has fed them, [saving them] from hunger and made them safe, [saving them] from fear. (106:4)
إِنَّهَا عَلَيْهِم مُّؤْصَدَةٌ
Indeed, Hellfire will be closed down upon them (104:8)
الإِظْهارُ الشَّفَوِي – the labial clarification of the letter Meem As Sakeena
This rule is applied when the meem as sakeena is followed by all the other 12 letters, that is to say:
ا – ت – ث – ج – ح – خ – د – ذ – ر – ز – س – ش – ص
ض – ط – ظ – ع – غ – ف – ق – ك – ل – ن – ه – و – ي
Technically, the meem as sakeena is pronounced normally and distinctly without a 2-beat ghunna.
The ghunna is therefore reduced or partial, and the letter of the alphabet that follows is pronounced.
It occurs when the meem as sakeena is followed by one of the remaining letters of the alphabet except for the ba ب and the meem م. At the base, it is a natural ghunna of 1 time because the meem, like the noon ن, has the same exit point (makhradj).
لَمْ يَلِدْ وَلَمْ يُولَدْ
He neither begets nor is born (112:3)
وَلَا أَنتُمْ عَابِدُونَ مَا أَعْبُدُ ﴿٥﴾ لَكُمْ دِينُكُمْ وَلِيَ دِينِ
Nor will you be worshippers of what I worship. For you is your religion, and for me, is my religion.” (109-5 and 6)
Note : The clarification (al idhar) will be stronger when – the meem as sakeena will be followed by the letters waw و and fa ف because these letters have their exit point, which is also the lips, and it becomes easy for the reader to conceal the letter meem.
Therefore, we will try to pronounce this meem as sakeena more clearly when in contact with waw و and fa ف so that an ikhfa is not pronounced by mistake.
تَلْفَحُ وُجُوهَهُمُ النَّارُ وَهُمْ فِيهَا كَالِحُونَ
The Fire will sear their faces, and they therein will have taut smiles. (23:104)
صِرَاطَ الَّذِينَ أَنْعَمْتَ عَلَيْهِمْ غَيْرِ الْمَغْضُوبِ عَلَيْهِمْ وَلَا الضَّالِّينَ
The path of those upon whom You have bestowed favour, not of those who have evoked [Your] anger or of those who are astray. (1:7)
This tajweed rules lesson is now finished. The next one will be insha’Allah about the rules of the prolongations.
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