The verb | past tense

Introduction

 

The verb is an action word with the time that is past, present, and future. According to tense, the verbs can be divided into:

 

  • Past tense – اَلْفِعْلُ الْمَاضِي: here the action has been completed. Therefore it is past tense.
  • Present tense – اِلْفِعْلُ الْمُضارِعُ: it is also called imperfect tense because the action is incomplete, i.e., it is being done in the present or will be done in the future.

 

Past tense – اَلْفِعْلُ الْمَاضِي

 

 

In Arabic, verbs are mostly tri-literal, i.e., three-lettered. They are of two kinds:

 

  • Consonant verbs – اَلْأَفْعَالُ الصَّحِيْحَةُ: they are based on three sound consonants. This chapter deals with these kinds of verbs.
  • Weak verbs – اَلْأَفْعَالُ الْمُعَتَلَّةُ: These are called weak verbs and may have one or more of the vowels (ا – و – ى) in their tri-literal formation. These vowels (ا – و – ى) are called Huruf al ‘Illa حُرُوفُ العِلَّةِ

 

 

Example:

 

وَعَدَ

To promise

 

 

قَالَ

To say

 

 

رَمَى

To throw

We will deal with the weak verbs in subsequent chapters.

 

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1. Consonant verbs – اَلْأَفْعَالُ الصَّحِيْحَةُ

 

 

The past tense of فَعَلَ

 

 

The basic or root word is based on the verb ف – ع – ل – فَعَلَ giving the meaning ” he did.” ف represents the first radical, ع the second, and ل the third radical. The root verb is always masculine-third person-singular.

 

 

Likewise, some other examples are:

 

فَتَحَ

To open

 

نَصَرَ

To help

 

The i’raab الإِعْرابُ of letter ف and ل is not variable in the root, but the i’raab on ع is variable, i.e., it can bear fatha, kasrah or dammah.

 

 

Examples:

 

فَعَلَ

كَفَرَ

To deny

 

فَعِلَ

سَمِعَ

to listen

 

فَعُلَ

حَرُمَ

to be generous

 

 

نَظَرَ

To see

 

شَرِبَ

To drink

 

بَعُدَ

To be far distant

 

 

 

دَخَلَ

To enter

 

حَزِنَ

To grieve

 

حَسُنَ

To be good

 

Past tense table of فَعَلَ is a follows:

 

 

3rd person masculine

 

Singular

فَعَلَ

He did

 

Dual

 

فَعَلَا

They both did

 

Plural

فَعَلُوْا

They all did

 

 

 

3rd person feminine

 

 

Singular

فَعَلَتْ

She did

 

Dual

 

فَعَلَتَا

They both did

 

Plural

فَعَلْنَ

They all did

 

 

 

 

 

2nd person masculine

 

Singular

فَعَلْتَ

You did

 

Dual

 

فَعَلْتُمَا

You both did

 

Plural

فَعَلْتُمْ

You all did

 

 

 

2nd person feminine

 

Singular

فَعَلْتِ

You did

 

Dual

 

فَعَلْتُمَا

You both did

 

Plural

فَعَلْتُنَّ

You all did

 

 

 

First-person (masculine/feminine)

 

Singular

فَعَلْتُ

I did

 

Dual

 

Plural

فَعَلْنَا

We all did

 

 

 

From the above table, we note the following important points:

 

  • With the addition of the letters, i.e., suffixes to the root فَعَلَ, the meaning of the verb will change. There are no prefixes used.

 

There is a corresponding pronoun hidden in every verb in the word. therefore, we do not need explicit pronouns to specify the doer. The following table shows the corresponding pronoun hidden in each verb formation.

 

Also not the suffixes added to فَعَلَ to make the pattern.

 

3rd person masculine

 

Singular

فَعَلَ

He did

Suffix: 

Hidden pronoun: هُوَ

 

Dual

فَعَلَا

They both did

Suffix: آ

Hidden pronoun: هُمَا

 

Plural

فَعَلُوْا

They all did

Suffix: وُا

Hidden pronoun: هُمْ

 

3rd person feminine

 

Singular

فَعَلَتْ

He did

Suffix: تْ

Hidden pronoun: هِيَ

 

Dual

فَعَلَتَا

They both did

Suffix: تا

Hidden pronoun:

 

Plural

فَعَلْنَ

They all did

Suffix: نَ

Hidden pronoun: هُنَّ

 

 

2nd person masculine

 

Singular

فَعَلْتَ

You did

Suffix: تَ

Hidden pronoun: أَنْتَ

 

Dual

فَعَلْتُمَا

You both did

Suffix: تُمَا

Hidden pronoun: أَنْتُمَا

 

Plural

فَعَلْتُمْ

You all did

Suffix: تُم

Hidden pronoun: أَنْتُمْ

 

 

2nd person feminine

 

Singular

فَعَلْتِ

You did

Suffix: تِ

Hidden pronoun: أَنْتِ

 

Dual

فَعَلْتُمَا

You both did

Suffix: تُمَا

Hidden pronoun: أَنْتُمَا

 

Plural

فَعَلْتُمْ

You all did

Suffix: تُنَّ

Hidden pronoun: أَنْتُنَّ

 

 

1st person masculine / feminine

 

Singular

فَعَلْتُ

I did

Suffix: تُ

Hidden pronoun: أَنا

 

 

 

Plural

فَعَلْتُمْ

We all did

Suffix: نَا

Hidden pronoun: نَحْنُ

 

 

The past tense of سَمِعَ

 

 

3rd person masculine

 

Singular

سَمِعَ

He heard

 

Dual

سَمِعَا

They both heard

 

Plural

سَمِعُوا

They all heard

 

 

 

 

3rd person feminine

 

Singular

سَمِعَتْ

She heard

 

Dual

سَمِعَنا

They both heard

 

Plural

سَمِعْنَ

They all heard

 

 

 

2nd person masculine

 

Singular

سَمِعَتْ

She heard

 

Dual

سَمِعَنا

They both heard

 

Plural

سَمِعْنَ

They all heard

 

 

2nd person feminine

 

 

Singular

سَمِعْتِ

You heard

 

Dual

سَمِعَنا

You both heard

 

Plural

سَمِعْنَ

You all heard

 

 

First-person (masculine/feminine)

 

Singular

سَمِعْتُ

I heard

 

Dual

 

 

Plural

سَمِعْنَا

We heard

 

 

 

The past tense of بَعُدَ

 

 

3rd person masculine

 

Singular

بَعُدَ

He became distant

 

Dual

بَعُدَا

They both became distant

 

Plural

بَعُدُو

They all became distant

 

3rd person feminine

 

Singular

بَعُدَتْ

She became distant

 

Dual

بَعُدَتَا

They both became distant

 

Plural

بَعُدْنا

They all became distant

 

 

 

2nd person masculine

 

Singular

بَعُدْتَ

You became distant

 

Dual

بَعُدْتُما

You both became distant

 

Plural

بَعُدْتُمْ

You all became distant

 

 

 

 

2nd person feminine

 

Singular

بَعُدْتِ

You became distant

 

Dual

بَعُدْتُما

You both became distant

 

Plural

بَعُدْتُنَّ

You all became distant

 

 

 

 

First-person (masculine/feminine)

 

Singular

بَعُدْتُ

I became distant

 

Dual

 

Plural

بَعُدْنَا

We became distant

 

 

 

Examples of the consonant verbs at the past tense from the Holy Quran

 

 

أَلَمْ تَرَ كَيْفَ فَعَلَ رَبُّكَ بِأَصْحَابِ الْفِيلِ

 

 

Have you not considered, [O Muhammad], how your Lord dealt with the companions of the elephant? (105:1)

 

 

فَمَا رَبِحَت تِّجَارَتُهُمْ وَمَا كَانُوا مُهْتَدِينَ

 

 

so their transaction has brought no profit, nor were they guided. (2:16)

 

 

 أَفَحَسِبَ الَّذِينَ كَفَرُوا أَن يَتَّخِذُوا عِبَادِي مِن دُونِي أَوْلِيَاءَ

 

 

Then do those who disbelieve think that they can take My servants instead of Me as allies? (18:102)

 

 

Sometimes in the second person, masculine plural و is added for the flow of pronunciation. It does not imply any meaning to the word:

 

وَلَقَدْ جِئْتُمُونَا فُرَادَىٰ كَمَا خَلَقْنَاكُمْ 

 

 

[It will be said to them], “And you have certainly come to Us alone as We created you (6:64)

If the third person masculine plural فَعَلُوا comes with a pronoun, the alif – ا of فعلوا will be dropped:

 

 

كَانُوا لَا يَتَنَاهَوْنَ عَن مُّنكَرٍ فَعَلُوهُ ۚ

 

 

The of قَدْ

 

The word قَدْ gives the meaning od certainly/ verily/has/have/indeed. It is used before the past perfect tense.

 

For example:

 

 

قَدْ أَفْلَحَ الْمُؤْمِنُونَ 

 

Certainly, will the believers have succeeded: (23:1)

 

Sometimes an addition لَ is prefixed to قَدْ which further emphasizes the meaning of the verb and is written as لَقَدْ

 

For example:

 

 

 لَقَدْ خَلَقْنَا الْإِنسَانَ فِي أَحْسَنِ تَقْوِيمٍ

 

We have certainly created man in the best of stature; (95:4)

 

 

2. Hamzated verbs at the past tense

 

hamzah verb - Past tense

 

Hamzah as the first radical

 

 Verbs with hamzah أ as initial, middle, or final radical are called hamzated verbs – الْفِعْلُ الْمَهْمُوزُ. The hamzah is a consonant. Hence it can be the initial or first radical.

 

For example:  

 

أَكَلَ

to eat

 

 

أَخَذَ

To take

 

There is no change in the past tense conjugation. It follows the same patterns as فَعَلَ. Past tense conjugation of أَكَلَ is tabulated below:  

 

 

3rd person masculine

 

Singular

أَكَلَ

He ate

 

Dual

أَكَلَا

They both ate

 

Plural

أَكَلُوْا

They all ate

 

 

3rd person feminine

 

 

Singular

أَكَلَتْ

She ate

 

Dual

أَكَلَتَا

They both ate

 

Plural

أَكَلْنَ

They all ate

 

 

 

2nd person masculine

 

 

Singular

أَكَلْتَ

You ate

 

Dual

أَكَلْتُمَا

You both ate

 

Plural

أَكَلْتُمْ

You all ate

 

 

 

2nd person feminine

 

Singular

أَكَلْتِ

You ate

 

Dual

أَكَلْتُمَا

You both ate

 

Plural

أَكَلْتُنَّ

You all ate

 

 

 

First-person (masculine/feminine)

 

Singular

أَكَلْتُ

I ate

 

Dual

 

Plural

أَكَلْنَا

We ate

 

 

 

 

Hamzah as the middle radical

 

For example:  

 

سَأَلَ

To ask

 

سَئِمَ

To disgust

 

 

Past tense conjugation of سَأَلَ  is as follows:  

 

 

3rd person masculine

 

Singular

سَأَلَ

He asked

 

Dual

سَاَلا

They both asked

 

Plural

سَأَلُوْا

They all asked

 

 

 

3rd person feminine

 

Singular

سَأَلَتْ

She asked

 

Dual

سَأَلَتَا

They both asked

 

Plural

سَأَلْنَ

They all asked

 

 

 

 

2nd person masculine

 

Singular

سَأَلْتَ

You asked

 

Dual

سَأَلْتُما

You both asked

 

Plural

سَأَلْتُمْ

They all asked

 

 

 

 

2nd person feminine

 

Singular

سَأَلْتِ

You asked

 

Dual

سَأَلْتُما

You both asked

 

Plural

سَأَلْتُنَّ

You all asked

 

 

 

 

First-person (masculine/feminine)

 

Singular

سَأَلْتُ

I asked

 

Dual

 

Plural

سَأَلْنَا

We asked

 

 

 

 

It follows the same pattern as the root word فَعَلَ

 

Hamzah as the third radical

 

 

For example:  

 

قَرَأَ

to read

 

 

دَرَأَ

to repel

 

Past tense conjugation of قَرَأَ  is as follows:  

 

 

3rd person masculine

 

 

Singular

قَرَأَ

He asked

 

Dual

قَرَأَا

They both read

 

Plural

قَرَأُوْا

They all read

 

3rd person feminine

 

 

Singular

قَرَأَتْ

She asked

 

Dual

قَرَأَتَا

They both read

 

Plural

قَرَئْنَ

They all read

 

 

 

2nd person masculine

 

Singular

قَرَأْتَ

You asked

 

Dual

قَرَأْتُمَا

You both read

 

Plural

قَرَأْتُمْ

You all read

 

 

 

 

 

2nd person feminine

 

 

Singular

قَرَأْتِ

You asked

 

Dual

قَرَأْتُمَا

You both read

 

Plural

قَرَأْتُنَّ

You all read

 

 

 

 

First-person (masculine/feminine)

 

Singular

قَرَأْتُ

I asked

 

Dual

 

Plural

قَرَأْنَا

We read

 

 

 

It follows the same pattern as the root word فَعَلَ.  

 

 

Examples of hamzated verbs at the past tense used from the Holy Quran

 

 

 

لا يَتَكَلَّمُونَ إِلَّا مَنْ أَذِنَ لَهُ الرَّحْمَـٰنُ وَقَالَ صَوَابًا

 

 

they will not speak except for one whom the Most Merciful permits, and he will say what is correct. (78:38)

 

 

 

سَأَلَ سَائِلٌ بِعَذَابٍ وَاقِعٍ

 

A supplicant asked for a punishment bound to happen (70:1)

 

 

 

فَإِذَا قَرَأْتَ الْقُرْآنَ فَاسْتَعِذْ بِاللَّـهِ مِنَ الشَّيْطَانِ الرَّجِيمِ 

 

 

So when you recite the Qur’an, [first] seek refuge in Allah from Satan, the expelled [from His mercy]. (16:98)

 

 

3. Weaks verbs at the past tense

 

weak verbs | past tense

 

Introduction

 

Assimilated verbs – الْمِثالُ, hollow verbs – الْأجْوَفُ, defective verbs – النَّاقِصُ are three types of weak verbs.  Words in which the vowels ا – و – ى  are present are called weak verbs. We have seen that when alif – ا comes with any of the ‘iraab, it is not alif – ا bu hamza ء  as in the hamzated verb – الْمَهْمُوزُ

 

 

When we deal with weak verbs, we notice that they deviate from the pattern of the root word فَعَلَ, and we, therefore, study each kind in detail along with the exceptions we encounter in the pattern.

 

In this chapter, we will deal with the assimilated verb – الْمِثالُ in detail and the hollow verb – الْأجْوَفُ and defective verb – النَّاقِصُ will be discussed in the following chapters.  

 

 

Assimilated verbs – الْمِثالُ

 

 

In this kind of verb, the initial radical is weak. i.e., و or ى  and comes in the place of ف. The patterns will be according to the pattern – فَعَلَ, and you will not observe any change. They are of two basic kinds.  

 

 

الْمِثالُ الْواوى – where و comes in place of ف, the first radical

 

  For example:

 

وَعَدَ

To promise

 

 

 

وَزَنَ

To weigh

 

 

وَجَدَ

To obtain/get

 

 

Past tense conjugation of وَعَدَ  is as follows:

 

3rd person masculine

 

Singular

وَعَدَ

He promised

 

Dual

وَعَدَا

they both promised

 

Plural

وَعَدُوْا

They all promised

 

 

 

3rd person feminine

 

Singular

وَعَدَتْ

She promised

 

Dual

وَعَدَتا

they both promised

 

Plural

وَعَدْنَ

They all promised

 

 

 

2nd person masculine

 

Singular

وَعَدْتَ

You promised

 

Dual

وَعَدْتُمَا

You both promised

 

Plural

وَعَدْتُم

You all promised

 

 

 

 

2nd person feminine

 

Singular

وَعَدْتِ

You promised

 

Dual

وَعَدْتُمَا

You both promised

 

Plural

وَعَدْتُنَّ

You all promised

 

 

 

 

First-person (masculine/feminine)

 

Singular

وَعَدْتُ

I promised

 

Dual

 

 

Plural

وَعَدْنا

We promised

 

 

 

Examples from the Holy Quran of assimilated weak verbs at the past tense

 

 

فَلَمَّا وَضَعَتْهَا قَالَتْ رَبِّ إِنِّي وَضَعْتُهَا أُنثَىٰ

 

 

But when she delivered her, she said, “My Lord, I have delivered a female.” (3:36)

 

 

وَوَهَبْنَا لَهُ إِسْحَاقَ وَيَعْقُوبَ نَافِلَةً ۖ وَكُلًّا جَعَلْنَا صَالِحِينَ

 

 

And We gave him Isaac and Jacob in addition, and all [of them] We made righteous. (21:72)

 

إِذَا وَقَعَتِ الْوَاقِعَةُ 

 

 

When the Occurrence occurs (56:1)

 

الْمِثالُ الْيائِى – Here ى comes in place of the first radical ف

 

Examples:  

 

يَسِرَ

To become easy

 

 

يَئِسَ

To dishearten

 

 

يَبِسَ

To become dry

 

 

 

Past tense conjugation of the verb يَسِرَ is as follows:  

 

 

3rd person masculine

 

 

Singular

يَئِسَ

He lost hope

 

Dual

يَئِسا

They both lost hope

 

Plural

يَئِسُوْا

they all lost hope

 

 

 

 

3rd person feminine

 

Singular

يَئِسَتْ

She lost hope

 

Dual

يَئِسَتَا

They both lost hope

 

Plural

يَئِسْنَ

they all lost hope

 

 

 

 

2nd person masculine

 

Singular

يَئِسْتَ

You lost hope

 

Dual

يَئِسْتُما

You both lost hope

 

Plural

يَئِسْتُمْ

You all lost hope

 

 

 

 

2nd person feminine

 

Singular

يَئِسْتِ

You lost hope

 

Dual

يَئِسْتُما

You both lost hope

 

Plural

يَئِسْتُنَّ

You all lost hope

 

 

 

First-person (masculine/feminine)

 

 

Singular

يَئِسْتُ

I lost hope

 

Dual

 

 

Plural

يَئِسْنَا

We lost hope

 

 

 

 

Examples of the assimilated verbs from the Holy Quran

 

 

الْيَوْمَ يَئِسَ الَّذِينَ كَفَرُوا مِن دِينِكُمْ

 

 

This day those who disbelieve have despaired of [defeating] your religion (5:3)

 

 

أُولَـٰئِكَ يَئِسُوا مِن رَّحْمَتِ

 

 

those have despaired of My mercy (29:23)

 

 

 

وَاللَّائِي يَئِسْنَ مِنَ الْمَحِيضِ مِن نِّسَائِكُمْ

 

And those who no longer expect menstruation among your women  (65:4)

 

 

4. Hollow verbs – weak verbs at the past tense

 

hollow verb - past tense

 

 

Introduction

 

Hollow verbs are verbs with a weak middle radical, i.e., و or ى . They come in place of ع, the middle radical. The middle letters و or ى  are replaced with alif – ا for easy pronunciation. 

 

Hollow verbs with the letter wa الْأَجْوَفُ الْواوى

 

  Here و comes in place of ع, the middle radical as قَوَلَ and is changed to a long alif, and become قَالَ.

 

 

Verbs with the first and third radicals as weak letters – اللَّفِيْفُ الْمَفْرُوقُ

 

 

They follow the same pattern as the defective verb رَمَى. For example:  

 

وَقَى

To save

 

 

وَفَ

To fulfill

 

 

وَنَى

To become weak/lose strength

 

 

The past tense conjugation of the doubly weak verb وَقَى is as follows:  

 

 
3rd person masculine

 

 

Singular

قَالَ

He said

 

Dual

قَالا

They both said

 

Plural

قَالُوْا

They all said

 

 

 

3rd person feminine

 

 

Singular

قَالَتْ

She said

 

Dual

قَالَتَا

They both said

 

Plural

قُلْنَ

They all said

 

 

 

 

2nd person masculine

 

 

Singular

قُلْتَ

You said

 

Dual

قُلْتُمَا

You both said

 

Plural

قُلْتُمْ

You all said

 

 

 

2nd person feminine

 

 

Singular

قُلْتِ

You said

 

Dual

قُلْتُمَا

You both said

 

Plural

قُلْتُنَّ

You all said

 

 

 

 

First-person (masculine/feminine)

 

 

Singular

قُلْتُ

I said

 

Dual

 

Plural

قُلْنَا

We said

 

 

 

 

 

Some other hollow verbs on the pattern of قَالَ are:  

 

ذَاقَ

To taste

 

 

جَاعَ

To become hungry

 

 

 

عَاذَ

To seek

 

 

 

Example of the pattern of قَالَ in the Quran

 

 

قَالَ يَا آدَمُ أَنبِئْهُم بِأَسْمَائِهِمْ

 

He said, “O Adam, inform them of their names.” (2:33)

 

 

 

 قَالَ مَا خَطْبُكُنَّ إِذْ رَاوَدتُّنَّ يُوسُفَ عَن نَّفْسِهِ ۚ قُلْنَ حَاشَ لِلَّـهِ مَا عَلِمْنَا عَلَيْهِ مِن سُوءٍ ۚ قَالَتِ امْرَأَتُ الْعَزِيزِ

 

Said [the king to the women], “What was your condition when you sought to seduce Joseph?” They said, “Perfect is Allah! We know about him, no evil.” The wife of al-‘Azeez said (12:51)

 

 

 إِلَّا الَّذِينَ تَابُوا وَأَصْلَحُوا وَبَيَّنُوا فَأُولَـٰئِكَ أَتُوبُ عَلَيْهِمْ ۚ وَأَنَا التَّوَّابُ الرَّحِيمُ 

 

 

Except for those who repent and correct themselves and make evident [what they concealed]. Those – I will accept their repentance, and I am the Accepting of repentance, the Merciful. (2:160)

 

 

Past tense conjugation of the hollow verb  خَافَ is as follows:

 

Here خَاف deviates from the pattern of قَالَ because the middle radical و has a kasrah on it.

 

 
3rd person masculine

 

Singular

خَافَ

He feared

 

Dual

خَافَا

They both feared

 

Plural

خَافُوْا

They all feared

 

 

 

 

3rd person feminine

 

Singular

خَافَتْ

He feared

 

Dual

خافَتَا

They both feared

 

Plural

خِفْنَ

They all feared

 

 

 

2nd person masculine

 

Singular

خِفْتَ

You feared

 

Dual

خِفْتُمَا

You both feared

 

Plural

خِفْتُمْ

You all feared

 

 

 

2nd person feminine

 

Singular

خِفْتِ

You feared

 

Dual

خِفْتُمَا

You both feared

 

Plural

خِفْتُنَّ

You all feared

 

 

 

 

First-person (masculine/feminine)

 

Singular

خِفْتُ

I feared

 

Dual

 

 

Plural

خِفْنَا

We feared

 

 

The second radical bear Kasrah , therefore the feminine third person plural becomes خِفْنَ which has a kasrah on the خ. The remaining words will follow the same pattern with the kasrah.

 

Some other verbs with similar behavior are:

 

نَامَ

To sleep

 

 

كادَ

To be about to

 

 

 

Examples of the pattern of خَافَ used in the Holy Quran:

 

فَمَنْ خَافَ مِن مُّوصٍ جَنَفًا أَوْ إِثْمًا 

if one fears from the bequeather [some] error or sin  (2:182)

 

 

فَإِذَا خِفْتِ عَلَيْهِ فَأَلْقِيهِ فِي الْيَمِّ 

but when you fear for him, cast him into the river (28:7)

 

 

فَذَبَحُوهَا وَمَا كَادُوا يَفْعَلُونَ

So they slaughtered her, but they could hardly do it. (2:71)

 

 

Here مَاتَ is on the pattern قَالَ and خَافَ respectively. Therefore, the third person feminine plural will be in both form مِتْنَ and مُتْنَ, and thereby the table will carry on forward the kasrah and dammah, respectively.

 

أَإِذَا مِتْنَا وَكُنَّا تُرَابًا وَعِظَامًا أَإِنَّا لَمَبْعُوثُونَ

When we have died and become dust and bones, are we indeed to be resurrected? (37:16)

 

 

وَلَئِن مُّتُّمْ أَوْ قُتِلْتُمْ لَإِلَى اللَّـهِ تُحْشَرُونَ 

AAnd whether you die or are killed, unto Allah, you will be gathered. (3:158)

 

 

 

Hollow verbs with the letter ya الْأَجْوَفُ الْيائِى

 

Here ى comes in place of ع, the middle radical in يَبَعَ and is changed to a long alif, and becomes بَاعَ.

 

Some other verbs on the pattern of بَاعَ are:

 

بَاتَ

To pass the night

 

 

سَارَ

To move

 

 

زَاغ

To turn aside

 

 

 

 

Past tense conjugation of بَاعَ is as follows:

 

 

3rd person masculine

 

Singular

بَاعَ

He sold

 

Dual

بَاعَا

they both sold

 

Plural

باعُوْا

They all sold

 

 

 

 

3rd person feminine

 

Singular

باعَتْ

She sold

 

Dual

باعَتَا

they both sold

 

Plural

بِعْنَ

They all sold

 

 

 

 

2nd person masculine

 

Singular

بِعْتَ

She sold

 

Dual

بِعْتُما

You both sold

 

Plural

بِعْتُمْ

They all sold

 

2nd person feminine

 

Singular

بِعْتِ

She sold

 

Dual

بِعْتُما

You both sold

 

Plural

بِعْتُنَّ

They all sold

 

 

 

 

First-person (masculine/feminine)

 

Singular

بِعْتُ

I sold

 

Dual

 

 

Plural

بِعْنَا

We sold

 

 

 

Examples of the pattern of بَاعَ used in the Holy quran

 

 

فَمِنْهُم مَّن يَقُولُ أَيُّكُمْ زَادَتْهُ هَـٰذِهِ إِيمَانًا

 

 

there are among the hypocrites those who say, “Which of you has this increased faith?” (9:124)

 

 

وَإِذَا جَاءُوكَ حَيَّوْكَ بِمَا لَمْ يُحَيِّكَ بِهِ اللَّـهُ 

 

 

 And when they come to you, they greet you with that [word] by which Allah does not greet you (58:8)

 

 

5. Doubly weak verb at the past tense

 

Doubly weak verb - Arabic free courses

Introduction

 

In English, اللَّفِيْفُ means tangled or complicated. In this lesson, we will deal with the doubly weak verb that has more than one weak letter – حُوُوفُ الْعِلَّةِ in their formation.

 

Verbs with the first and third radicals as weak letters – اللَّفِيْفُ الْمَفْرُوقُ

 

They follow the same pattern as the defective verb رَمَى.

 

For example:  

 

وَقَى

To save

 

 

وَفَى

To fulfill

 

 

وَنَى

To become weak/lose strength

 

 

 

The past tense conjugation of the doubly weak verb وَقَى is as follows:  

 

3rd person masculine

 

Singular

وَقَى

He saved

 

Dual

وَقَيَا

they both saved

 

 

Plural

وَقَوْا

They all saved

 

 

3rd person feminine

 

Singular

وَقَتْ

She saved

 

Dual

وَقَتَا

they both saved

 

Plural

وَقَيْنَ

They all saved

 

 

 

 

2nd person masculine

 

 

Singular

وَقَيْتَ

You saved

 

Dual

وَقَيْتُمَا

You both saved

 

Plural

وَقَيْتُمْ

You all saved

 

 

 

 

2nd person feminine

 

Singular

وَقَيْتِ

You saved

 

Dual

وَقَيْتُمَا

You both saved

 

Plural

وَقَيْتُنَّ

You all saved

 

 

 

 

First-person (masculine/feminine)

 

Singular

وَقَيْتُ

I saved

 

Dual

 

 

Plural

وَقَيْتُنَّ

We  saved

 

 

 

 

Verbs with the second and third radicals as a weak letter – اللَّفِيْفُ الْمَقْرُوْنُ

 

They follow the same pattern as the defective verb لَقَى.

 

For example:

 

حَيِىَ

To live

 

 

قَوِىَ

To become strong/powerful

 

 

 

Past tense conjugation of حَيِىَ is as follows:  

 

3rd person masculine

 

Singular

حَيِىَ

He lived

 

Dual

حَيِيَا

They both lived

 

Plural

حَيُوْا

They all lived 

 

 

3rd person feminine

 

Singular

حَيِيَتْ

She lived

 

Dual

حَيِيَتَا

They both lived

 

Plural

حَيِيْنَ

They all lived 

 

 

 

 

2nd person masculine

 

Singular

حَيِيْتَ

You lived

 

Dual

حَيْتُمَا

You both lived

 

Plural

حَيِيْنَ

You all lived 

 

 

 

 

2nd person feminine

 

Singular

حَيِيْتِ

You lived

 

Dual

حَيْتُمَا

You both lived

 

Plural

حَيِيْتُمْ

You all lived 

 

 

 

 

 

First-person (masculine/feminine)

 

Singular

حَيِيْتُ

I lived

 

Dual

 

 

Plural

حَيِيْنَا

We lived 

 

 

6. The double lettered verb at the past tense

 

The double lettered verb - Arabic free courses

Introduction

 

The double lettered verb are some verbs in which the second and third radical are identical. In such cases, the second radical will have shaddah on it, and hence it will be pronounced twice.

 

Example:

 

ظَنَّ 

To think / to suspect

 

 

 

Some grammarians categorize double lettered verbs as tri-literal and some as bi-literal.

 

Past tense conjugation of the double lettered verb ظَنَّ is as follows:

 

3rd person masculine

 

Singular

ظَنَّ

He thought

 

Dual

ظَنَّا

They bought thought

 

Plural

ظَنُّوْا

They all thought

 

 

 

3rd person feminine

 

 

Singular

ظَنَّتْ

She thought

 

Dual

ظَنَّتَا

They bought thought

 

Plural

ظَنَنْنَ

they all thought

 

 

 

 

2nd person masculine

 

Singular

ظَنَنْتَ

You thought

 

Dual

ظَنَنْتُمَا

You bought thought

 

Plural

ظَنَنْتُمْ

You all thought

 

 

 

 

 

2nd person feminine

 

Singular

ظَنَنْتِ

You thought

 

Dual

ظَنَنْتُمَا

You bought thought

 

Plural

ظَنَنْتُنَّ

You all thought

 

 

First-person (masculine/feminine)

 

Singular

ظَنّنْتُ

I thought

 

Dual

 

Plural

ظَنَنْنَا

We thought

 

In the third person feminine plural, the shaddah is removed, and the letters will be written individually. In the remaining table, this pattern is carried forward.

Some words on the pattern of ظَنَّ are:

 

شَدَّ

To strengthen

 

 

مَرَّ

To pass

 

فَرَّ

To run away

 

 

 

Examples of the double lettered verb at the past tense used in the Holy Quran

 

 

فَلَمَّا قَضَيْنَا عَلَيْهِ الْمَوْتَ مَا دَلَّهُمْ عَلَىٰ مَوْتِهِ إِلَّا دَابَّةُ الْأَرْضِ تَأْكُلُ مِنسَأَتَهُ

 

When we decreed for Solomon’s death, nothing indicated to the jinn his death except a creature of the earth eating his staff.

(34:14)

 

 

 قُل لَّا أَتَّبِعُ أَهْوَاءَكُمْ ۙ قَدْ ضَلَلْتُ إِذًا وَمَا أَنَا مِنَ الْمُهْتَدِينَ

 

 

Say, “I will not follow your desires, for I would then have gone astray, and I would not be of the [rightly] guided.” (6:56)

 

وَصَدَّهَا مَا كَانَت تَّعْبُدُ مِن دُونِ اللَّـهِ ۖ إِنَّهَا كَانَتْ مِن قَوْمٍ كَافِرِينَ

 

 

And that which she was worshipping other than Allah had averted her [from submission to Him]. Indeed, she was from a disbelieving people.” (27:43)

 

 

This Arabic lesson about the past tense is now finished. The next one will be insha’Allah about a consonant verb in the imperfect tense in Arabic.

Al-dirassa center offers you the possibility to study the Arabic language easily with a qualified teacher. If you are interested, do not hesitate to consult us.

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