verbal noun | Arabic free courses

Introduction: the verbal noun – اِسْمُ الْمَصْدَرُ

 

The source from which all the nouns and verbs are derived is called الْمَصْدَرُ. A verbal noun can be added with the article ال or tanween and can be declined according to the sentence, i.e., nominative, accusative, and genitive case.

 

  Example:  

 

لَوْلَا يَنْهَاهُمُ الرَّبَّانِيُّونَ وَالْأَحْبَارُ عَن قَوْلِهِمُ الْإِثْمَ وَأَكْلِهِمُ السُّحْتَ ۚ لَبِئْسَ مَا كَانُوا يَصْنَعُونَ

 

 

Why do the rabbis and religious scholars not forbid them from saying what is sinful and devouring what is unlawful? How wretched is what they have been practicing. (5:63)

 

يَا أَيُّهَا الَّذِينَ آمَنُوا تُوبُوا إِلَى اللَّـهِ تَوْبَةً نَّصُوحًا

 

 

O you who have believed, repent to Allah with sincere repentance. (66:8)

 

 فَكَفَّارَتُهُ إِطْعَامُ عَشَرَةِ مَسَاكِينَ مِنْ أَوْسَطِ مَا تُطْعِمُونَ أَهْلِيكُمْ أَوْ كِسْوَتُهُمْ أَوْ تَحْرِيرُ رَقَبَةٍ

 

 

So its expiation is the feeding of ten needy people from the average of that which you feed your [own] families or clothing them or the freeing of a slave. (5:89)

 

  The following are the nouns and verbs derived from the verbal noun – الْمَصْدَرُ:  

 

  • Verbs – أَفْعَالٌ
  • Active participle – اسْمُ الفاعِلِ
  • Passive participle – اِسْمُ المَفْعُولِ
  • Noun for place and time – اسْمُ الظَّرْفِ
  • Noun for the instrument – اسْمُ الآلَةِ
  • Comparative superlative – اسْمُ التَّفْضِيْلِ
  • Adjective – اسْمُ الصِّفَةِ
  • Elative – اسْمُ المُبَالِغَةِ

 

Certain rules do not govern the verbal forms as they are accepted by hearing, tradition.

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The following patterns of the verbal noun are used in the Holy Quran:

 

Pattern فَعْلٌ

 

فَطَوَّعَتْ لَهُ نَفْسُهُ قَتْلَ أَخِيهِ فَقَتَلَهُ فَأَصْبَحَ مِنَ الْخَاسِرِينَ

And his soul permitted to him the murder of his brother, so he killed him and became among the losers. (5:30)

 

Pattern فَعُلٌ

 

إِنَّ الشِّرْكَ لَظُلْمٌ عَظِيمٌ 

Indeed, association [with him] is a great injustice.” (31:13)

 

Pattern فُعْلٌ

 

وَقَالُوا قُلُوبُنَا غُلْفٌ

And they said, “Our hearts are wrapped.” (2:88)

 

Pattern فَعَلٌ

 

 لَقَدْ خَلَقْنَا الْإِنسَانَ فِي كَبَدٍ

We have certainly created man into hardship. (90:4)

 

Pattern فَعِلٌ

 

وَجَاءُوا عَلَىٰ قَمِيصِهِ بِدَمٍ كَذِبٍ

And they brought upon his shirt false blood.  (12:18)

 

Pattern فًعَلٌ

 

هُدًى لِّلْمُتَّقِينَ

guidance for those conscious of Allah  (2:2)

 

Pattern فَعْلَةٌ

 

 فَقَبَضْتُ قَبْضَةً مِّنْ أَثَرِ الرَّسُولِ

so I took a handful [of dust] from the track of the messenger (20:96)

 

Pattern فِعْلَةٌ

 

 تِلْكَ إِذًا قِسْمَةٌ ضِيزَىٰ 

That, then, is an unjust division. (53:22)

 

Pattern فُعْلَةٌ

 

 إِذْ أَنتُم بِالْعُدْوَةِ الدُّنْيَا

[Remember] when you were on the near side of the valley (8:42)

 

Pattern فَعَلَةٌ

 

 فَفِدْيَةٌ مِّن صِيَامٍ أَوْ صَدَقَةٍ أَوْ نُسُكٍ

a ransom of fasting [three days] or charity or sacrifice (2:196)

 

Pattern فَعِلَةٌ

 

وَتَمَّتْ كَلِمَتُ رَبِّكَ

And the word of your Lord has been fulfilled  (6:115)

 

Pattern فِعْلَى

 

إِنْ هُوَ إِلَّا ذِكْرَىٰ لِلْعَالَمِينَ

 It is not but a reminder for the worlds. (6:90)

 

Pattern فَعْلَى

 

فَمَا زَالَت تِّلْكَ دَعْوَاهُمْ حَتَّىٰ جَعَلْنَاهُمْ حَصِيدًا خَامِدِينَ

And that declaration of theirs did not cease until We made them [as] a harvest [mowed down], extinguished [like a fire]. (21:15)

 

Pattern فُعْلَى

 

قَالَ يَا بُشْرَىٰ هَـٰذَا غُلَامٌ

He said, “Good news! Here is a boy.” (12:19)

 

Pattern فَعْلانِ

 

وَلَمَّا رَجَعَ مُوسَىٰ إِلَىٰ قَوْمِهِ غَضْبَانَ أَسِفًا

And when Moses returned to his people, angry and grieved (7:150)

 

Pattern فُعْلانِ

 

وَقَالُوا سَمِعْنَا وَأَطَعْنَا ۖ غُفْرَانَكَ رَبَّنَا وَإِلَيْكَ الْمَصِيرُ

And they say, “We hear and we obey. [We seek] Your forgiveness, our Lord, and to You is the [final] destination.” (2:285)

 

Pattern فَعْلانِ

 

وَكَرَّهَ إِلَيْكُمُ الْكُفْرَ وَالْفُسُوقَ وَالْعِصْيَانَ

 and has made hateful to you disbelief, defiance and disobedience. (49:7)

 

Pattern فَعَالٌ

 

وَإِنَّا عَلَىٰ ذَهَابٍ بِهِ لَقَادِرُونَ

And indeed, We can take it away. (23:18)

 

Pattern فَعَالٌ

 

وَهُوَ أَلَدُّ الْخِصَامِ

yet he is the fiercest of opponents. (2:204)

 

Pattern فُعَالٌ

 

قَالَ لَقَدْ ظَلَمَكَ بِسُؤَالِ نَعْجَتِكَ إِلَىٰ نِعَاجِهِ 

[David] said, “He has certainly wronged you in demanding your ewe [in addition] to his ewes.  (38:24)

 

Pattern فَعَالَةٌ

 

بَرَاءَةٌ مِّنَ اللَّـهِ وَرَسُولِهِ إِلَى الَّذِينَ عَاهَدتُّم مِّنَ الْمُشْرِكِينَ

[This is a declaration of] disassociation, from Allah and His Messenger to those with whom you had made a treaty among the polytheists. (9:1)

 

Pattern فَعَالَةٌ

 

أَجَعَلْتُمْ سِقَايَةَ الْحَاجِّ 

Have you made the providing of water for the pilgrim (9:19)

 

Pattern فُعُولٌ

 

فَاصْبِرْ عَلَىٰ مَا يَقُولُونَ وَسَبِّحْ بِحَمْدِ رَبِّكَ قَبْلَ طُلُوعِ الشَّمْسِ وَقَبْلَ الْغُرُوبِ

So be patient, [O Muhammad], over what they say and exalt [Allah] with praise of your Lord before the rising of the sun and before its setting, (50:39)

 

Pattern فَعُوْلٌ

 

فَتَقَبَّلَهَا رَبُّهَا بِقَبُولٍ حَسَنٍ

So her Lord accepted her with good acceptance (3:37)

 

Pattern فَعِيْلٌ

 

 وَجَعَلْنَاكُمْ أَكْثَرَ نَفِيرًا

and made you more numerous in manpower (17:6)

 

Pattern فَعُوْلَةٌ

 

وَمِنَ الْأَنْعَامِ حَمُولَةً وَفَرْشًا

And of the grazing livestock are carriers [of burdens] and those [too] small. (6:142)

 

Note: The pattern فَعْلَةٌ is called اِسْمُ الْمَرَّةِ. It is used to specify the number of times an act is committed.

 

There is a kind of الْمَصْدَرُ called المَصْدَرُ المِيمي. Its pattern can be مَفْعَلٌ – مَفْعِلٌ – مُفْعَلٌ.  

 

وَقُل رَّبِّ أَدْخِلْنِي مُدْخَلَ صِدْقٍ

And say, “My Lord, cause me to enter a sound entrance (17:80)

 

خَالِدِينَ فِيهَا ۚ حَسُنَتْ مُسْتَقَرًّا وَمُقَامًا 

Abiding eternally therein. Good is the settlement and residence. (25:76)

You have now completed this Arabic lesson. The next one will be insha’Allah about the introduction to the tri-literal verb form فَعَّلَ

 

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