Introduction

 

 

The verb in which there is an increase in letter or letters is called – الْفِعْلُ الْمَزِيْدُ الثُلاثِي. They are the triliteral root verbs.

 

 

1. Triliteral root verb – الْفِعْلُ المُجَرَّدُ الثُلاثِي

 

 

Letters are added to the triliteral root verb – الْفِعْلُ المُجَرَّدُ الثُلاثِي to increase the vocabulary and to fulfill the demands of the language.

 

Due to the increase in letters to the triliteral root verb in the form of prefixes, suffixes and infixes derived verbs are formed, and their meaning can be:

 

  • Similar to the root
  • Changed from transitive to intransitive, etc.
  •  

For example, the root verb قَتَلَ  – to kill:

 

  • By adding a long vowel alif ا after ق of قَتَلَ, the derived verb قَاتَلَ is formed and gives the meaning “to fight another person.”
  • If the second radical of this verb is doubled, it will become قَتَّلَ, which means “he massacred.”

 

There are 15 forms of verbs. The three-lettered for فَعَلَ which is the root is considered as the first form. The other 14 forms are the derivatives of the first form.

 

  • Form I: فَعَلَ – فَعِلَ – فَعُلَ   With the addition of one letter to the first form of the verb, the following verbs are derived.
  • Form II: فَعَّلَ
  • Form III: فَاعَلَ
  • Form IV: أَفْعَلَ

 

With the addition of two letters to the first form of the verb, the following verbs are derived.

 

  • Form V: تَفَعَّلَ
  • Form VI: تَفَاعَلَ
  • Form VII: انْفَعَلَ
  • Form VIII: اِفْتَعَلَ
  • Form IX: إِفْعَلَ

 

 

With the addition of three letters to the first form of the verb, the following verbs are derived.

 

  • Form X: اِسْتَفْعَلَ
  • Form XI: إِفْعَالَّ

 

 

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2. Table of triliteral verb form-  فَعَّلَ

 

tri-literal verb form فَعَّلَ - cours d'arabe gratuit en ligne

It is formed from the triliteral root by doubling the second radical. The imperfect tense – الْمُضَارِعُ sign of this pattern will bear a dammah .

 

  • Past tense – فَعَّلَ
  • Imperfect tense – يُفْعِّلُ
  • Imperative – فَعِّل
  • Verbal noun – تَفْعِيْلٌ – تَفعِلَةٌ
  • Active participle  – مُفَعِّلٌ
  • Passive participle  – مُفَعَّلٌ
  • Past passive  – فُعِّلَ
  • Imperfect passive  – يُفَعَّلُ

 

 

Points to note:

 

 

  1. Some words of this form have a causative meaning

 

For example:

 

عَلِمَ = عَلَّمَ

 To teach (to cause someone to know) – to know.

 

 

وَعَلَّمَ آدَمَ الْأَسْمَاءَ كُلَّهَا 

 

 

And He taught Adam the names – all of them.  (2:31)

 

 

2. This form may be adopted to strengthen the meaning.

 

 

An act is done with great violence or continued for a longer duration.

 

قَطَعَ – قَطَّعَ

To cut into pieces – To cut.

 

 

قَتَلَ – قَتَّلَ

 To massacre – to kill

 

 

3. To shorten: some verbs of this form give the complete sense of a sentence.

 

 

كَبَّرَ

To say “Allahu akbar.

 

 

سَبَّحَ

To say “SubhanAllah.

 

 

4. To change from intransitive – اللَّازِمُ to transitive – الْمُتَعَدِّي.

 

Words that are intransitive in the form I become transitive in form II.

 

نَامَ – نَوَّمَ

To put to sleep – to sleep.

 

 

5. Same meaning as in triliteral. In this form, the meaning of the derived verb is the same as the root.

 

بَدَّلَ – بَدَلَ

To change – to change

 

 

فَبَدَّلَ الَّذِينَ ظَلَمُوا قَوْلًا غَيْرَ الَّذِي قِيلَ لَهُمْ 

 

 

But those who wronged changed [those words] to a statement other than that which had been said to them, (2:59)

 

 

6. Verbs formed from nouns

 

Some verbs in this form are made from nouns.

 

هَوَّدَ 

To make a Jew (from the noun يَهُودٌ meaning Jew)

 

نَصَّرَ

To make a Christian (from the noun نَصْرانِّيٌّ meaning Christian)

 

7. Totally new meanings are given to the derived form.

 

For example:

 

سَخَّرَ – سَخِرَ

To subjugate – to mock

 

سُبْحَانَ الَّذِي سَخَّرَ لَنَا هَـٰذَا وَمَا كُنَّا لَهُ مُقْرِنِينَ

 

 

“Exalted is He who has subjected this to us, and we could not have [otherwise] subdued it. (43:13)

 

 

صَلَى – صَلَّى

To pray – to pray

 

 

كَلِمَ – كَلَّمَ

To speak – to injure

 

 

8. To make the passive voice of this form, in the past perfect tense, the first radicle is given dammah and the second radicle is given kasra.

 

Whereas in the imperfect tense, the sign of the present tense will bear dammah, and the second radicle will bear fatha.

 

The verbal noun – المَصدَرُ in the defective verbs – الْفِعْلُ الناقِصُ will be on the pattern of تَفْعِلَةٌ.

 

For example:

 

زَكَّى  – تَزْكِيَةٌ

 

 

Table of زَكَّى to purify, to clean

 

Past tense – زَكَّى Imperfect tense – يُزَكِّي Imperative – زَكِّ Verbal noun –تَزْكِيَةٌ Active participle  – مُزَكٍّ Passive participle  – مُزَكًى Past passive  – زُكِّيَ Imperfect passive  – يُزَكَّى

 

وَنَجِّنِي مِن فِرْعَوْنَ وَعَمَلِهِ وَنَجِّنِي مِنَ الْقَوْمِ الظَّالِمِينَ

 

 

and save me from Pharaoh and his deeds and save me from the wrongdoing people.” (66:11)

 

 

يَعِدُهُمْ وَيُمَنِّيهِمْ ۖ وَمَا يَعِدُهُمُ الشَّيْطَانُ إِلَّا غُرُورًا

 

 

Satan promises them and arouses desire in them. But Satan does not promise them except delusion. (4:120)

 

Note: Some verbs are not defective, but their verbal noun – مَصْدَر is also on the pattern of تَفْعِلَةٌ.

  Examples:

تَذْكِيْرٌ – تَذْكِرَةٌ = ذَكَّرَ

 

يَتْلُو عَلَيْهِمْ آيَاتِهِ وَيُزَكِّيهِمْ وَيُعَلِّمُهُمُ الْكِتَابَ وَالْحِكْمَةَ

 

 

reciting to them His verses and purifying them and teaching them the Book and wisdom (62:2)

 

 

أَوْ زِدْ عَلَيْهِ وَرَتِّلِ الْقُرْآنَ تَرْتِيلًا

 

 

Or add to it, and recite the Qur’an with measured recitation. (73:4)

 

 

سَبِّحِ اسْمَ رَبِّكَ الْأَعْلَى 

 

 

Exalt the name of your Lord, the Highest, (87:1)

 

 

وَلَـٰكِنَّ اللَّـهَ حَبَّبَ إِلَيْكُمُ الْإِيمَانَ وَزَيَّنَهُ فِي قُلُوبِكُمْ وَكَرَّهَ إِلَيْكُمُ الْكُفْرَ

 

 

but Allah has endeared to you the faith and has made it pleasing in your hearts and has made hateful to you disbelief (49:7)

 

 

بَلْ جَاءَ بِالْحَقِّ وَصَدَّقَ الْمُرْسَلِينَ

 

 

Rather, the Prophet has come with the truth and confirmed the [previous] messengers. (37:37)

 

 

3. فَاعَلَ – Triliteral Root form

 

Triliteral Root form فَاعَلَ | arabic free courses

 

The form فَاعَلَ is constructed by adding ا – alif in between the first radical ف and second radical ع—the imperfect tense sign of this pattern beard dammah on it.

 

 

Table of فَاعَلَ

 

 

  • Past tense – فَاعَلَ
  • Imperfect tense – يُفَاعِلُ 
  • Imperative – فَاعِلْ 
  • Verbal noun – فِعَالٌ- مُفَاعِلَةٌ
  • Active participle  – مُفَاعِلٌ
  • Passive participle  – مُفَاعَلٌ
  • Past passive  – فُوْعِلَ
  • Imperfect passive  – يُفَأعِلُ

 

The gener

al rule is followed to make the past passive voice, but the alif – ا in between will be changed to و.

 

Example:

  • فُوْعِلَ = فَاعَلَ

 

Points to note:

 

  1. Verbs of this form usually show an action being done with another (person or group). Hence it is always a transitive verb.

 

Examples:

  • To kill – قَتَلَ
  • To fight – قَاتَلَ

 

 

وَكَأَيِّن مِّن نَّبِيٍّ قَاتَلَ مَعَهُ رِبِّيُّونَ كَثِيرٌ

 

 

And how many a prophet [fought and] with him fought many religious scholars. (3:146)

 

  Sometimes verbs of this form might have a completely new meaning from their triliteral root.

 

Examples:

  • To kneel/lied down = بَرَكَ
  • To bless = بَارَكَ

 

 

الَّذِي بَارَكْنَا حَوْلَهُ لِنُرِيَهُ مِنْ آيَاتِنَا

 

 

whose surroundings We have blessed, to show him of Our signs. (17:1)

 

Example

  • Past tense – لَاقَى
  • Imperfect tense – يُلاقِي
  • Imperative – لاقِ
  • Verbal noun – مُلاقَاةٌ
  • Active participle  – مُلاقٍ
  • Passive participle  – مُلاقًى
  • Past passive  – لُوْقِيَ
  • Imperfect passive  – يُلاقَى

 

 

Examples of triliteral Root form فَاعَلَ used in the Holy Quran

 

 

إِنِّي ظَنَنتُ أَنِّي مُلَاقٍ حِسَابِيَهْ 

 

 

Indeed, I was certain that I would be meeting my account.” (69:20)

 

 

وَقَاتِلُوهُمْ حَتَّىٰ لَا تَكُونَ فِتْنَةٌ

 

 

Fight them until there is no [more] fitnah  (2:193)

 

 

كُتِبَ عَلَيْكُمُ الْقِتَالُ وَهُوَ كُرْهٌ لَّكُمْ

 

 

Fighting has been enjoined upon you (2:216)

 

 

فَالْآنَ بَاشِرُوهُنَّ وَابْتَغُوا مَا كَتَبَ اللَّـهُ لَكُمْ

 

 

So now, have relations with them and seek that which Allah has decreed for you. (2:187)

 

 

 وَمَن جَاهَدَ فَإِنَّمَا يُجَاهِدُ لِنَفْسِهِ

 

 

And whoever strives only strives for [the benefit of] himself. (29:6)

 

 

أَلَمْ تَرَ إِلَى الَّذِي حَاجَّ إِبْرَاهِيمَ فِي رَبِّهِ

 

 

Have you not considered the one who argued with Abraham about his Lord (2:258)

 

 

وَالَّذِينَ اتَّخَذُوا مَسْجِدًا ضِرَارًا

 

 

And [there are] those [hypocrites] who took for themselves a mosque for causing harm (9:107)

 

 

إِذَا جَاءَكَ الْمُنَافِقُونَ قَالُوا نَشْهَدُ إِنَّكَ لَرَسُولُ اللَّـهِ

 

 

When the hypocrites come to you, [O Muhammad], they say, “We testify that you are the Messenger of Allah.” (63:1)

 

 

وَمَا أُرِيدُ أَنْ أُخَالِفَكُمْ إِلَىٰ مَا أَنْهَاكُمْ عَنْهُ

 

 

And I do not intend to differ from you in that which I have forbidden you;  (11:88)

 

 

4. أَفْعَلَ – Triliteral Root form

 

the triliteral roo form أَفْعَلَ | Arabic free courses  

 

 

The form أَفْعَلَ is made by prefixing hamza أ with fatha to the root form فَعَلَ. This hamza is not the hamza of joining – hamzatul wasl, as in the other forms; hence it is always pronounced. The imperfect sign of this pattern bears dammah on it.

 

 

Table of أَفْعَلَ

 

 

  • Past tense – أَفْعَلَ
  • Imperfect tense – يُفْعِلُ
  • Imperative – أَفْعِلْ
  • Verbal noun – إِفْعَالٌ
  • Active participle  – مُفْعِلٌ
  • Passive participle  – مُفْعَلٌ
  • Past passive  – أُفْعِلَ
  • Imperfect passive  – يُفْعَلُ

 

Point to note:

 

1. Some words of this form have a causative meaning.

 

Examples:

 

  • خَرَجَ – to go out
  • أخْرَخَ – to drive out
  • نَزَلَ – to descend
  • أَنْزَلَ – to take or bring down

 

 

وَبِالْحَقِّ أَنزَلْنَاهُ وَبِالْحَقِّ نَزَلَ ۗ وَمَا أَرْسَلْنَاكَ إِلَّا مُبَشِّرًا وَنَذِيرًا

 

 

And with the truth, We have sent the Qur’an down, and with the truth, it has descended. And We have not sent you, [O Muhammad], except as a bringer of good tidings and a warner. (17:105)

 

 

2. Some transitive verbs – الْمُتَعَدِّي are made from the intransitive verb – اللازِمُ

 

 

Examples:

 

  • دَخَلَ – to enter
  • أَدْخَلَ – to make to enter

 

  • نَسِيَ – to forget
  • أَنْسَي – to make to forget

 

  • ذَهَبَ – to go
  • أَذْهَبَ – to remove

 

 

وَقَالُوا الْحَمْدُ لِلَّـهِ الَّذِي أَذْهَبَ عَنَّا الْحَزَنَ

 

 

And they will say, “Praise to Allah, Who has removed from us [all] sorrow (35:34)

 

 

3. Sometimes, verbs of this form might have a completely new meaning from their triliteral root.

 

 

Examples:

 

  • قَرَضَ – to cut
  • أَقْرَضَ – to lend

 

  • لَقِيَ – He met
  • أَلْقَى – to cast down, to fling

 

 

إِن تُقْرِضُوا اللَّـهَ قَرْضًا حَسَنًا

 

 

If you loan Allah a goodly loan (64:17)

 

 

قَالَ أَلْقُوا ۖ فَلَمَّا أَلْقَوْا سَحَرُوا أَعْيُنَ النَّاسِ وَاسْتَرْهَبُوهُمْ وَجَاءُوا بِسِحْرٍ عَظِيمٍ 

 

 

He said, “Throw,” and when they threw, they bewitched the eyes of the people and struck terror into them, and they presented a great [feat of] magic. (7:116)

 

 

4. Some verbs of this form are from nouns

 

 

  • صُبْحٌ – morning
  • أَصْبَحَ – to enter upon morning

 

  • مَساءٌ – evening
  • أَمْسَى – to enter into evening

 

  • ضُحَى – forenoon
  • أَضْحَى – to enter into the forenoon

 

 

5. In hollow verbs, the verbal noun will be on the pattern of إِفْعَالَةٌ.

 

Examples:

 

  • أَقَامَ = إِقَامَةٌ

 

 

Table of أَقَأمَ to establish, to straighten:

 

 

  • Past tense – َقَامَ
  • Imperfect tense – يُقِيْمُ
  • Imperative – أَقِمْ
  • Verbal noun – إِقَامَةٌ
  • Active participle  – مُقِيْمٌ
  • Passive participle  – مُقَامٌ
  • Past passive  – أُقِيْمَ
  • Imperfect passive  – يُقَامُ

 

 

6. In defective verbs, the verbal noun will be on the pattern of إِفْعَاءٌ

 

Example:

 

  • أَوْفَى – إيْفَاءٌ

 

 

Table of أَوْفَى:

 

  • Past tense – َأَوْفَى
  • Imperfect tense – يُوْفِي
  • Imperative – أَوْفِ
  • Verbal noun – إِيْفَاءٌ
  • Active participle  – مُوْفٍ
  • Passive participle  – مُوْفًى
  • Past passive  – أُوْفِيَ
  • Imperfect passive  – يُوْفَى

 

 

Examples of triliteral roo form أَفْعَلَ used in the Holy Quran

 

 

وَلَا تَقُولُوا لِمَنْ أَلْقَىٰ إِلَيْكُمُ السَّلَامَ لَسْتَ مُؤْمِنًا

 

 

; and do not say to one who gives you [a greeting of] peace “You are not a believer,” (4:94)

 

 

لَاهِيَةً قُلُوبُهُمْ ۗ وَأَسَرُّوا النَّجْوَى الَّذِينَ ظَلَمُوا هَلْ هَـٰذَا إِلَّا بَشَرٌ مِّثْلُكُمْ

 

 

With their hearts distracted. And those who do wrong conceal their private conversation, [saying], “Is this [Prophet] except a human being like you?  (21:3)

 

 

وَمَا أَرْسَلْنَا قَبْلَكَ إِلَّا رِجَالًا نُّوحِي إِلَيْهِمْ

 

 

And We sent not before you, [O Muhammad], except men to whom We revealed [the message] (21:7)

 

 

ثُمَّ صَدَقْنَاهُمُ الْوَعْدَ فَأَنجَيْنَاهُمْ وَمَن نَّشَاءُ وَأَهْلَكْنَا الْمُسْرِفِينَ

 

 

Then We fulfilled for them the promise, and We saved them and whom We willed and destroyed the transgressors. (21:9)

 

 

وَكَمْ قَصَمْنَا مِن قَرْيَةٍ كَانَتْ ظَالِمَةً وَأَنشَأْنَا بَعْدَهَا قَوْمًا آخَرِينَ

 

 

And how many an unjust city have We shattered and produced after it another people. (21:11)

 

 

كُلَّمَا أَرَادُوا أَن يَخْرُجُوا مِنْهَا

 

 

Every time they want to get out of Hellfire  (22:22)

 

 

وَأَحَلَّ اللَّـهُ الْبَيْعَ وَحَرَّمَ الرِّبَا

 

 

 But Allah has permitted trade and has forbidden interest (2:275)

 

 

وَلَا تُسْرِفُوا ۚ إِنَّهُ لَا يُحِبُّ الْمُسْرِفِينَ 

 

 

but be not excessive. Indeed, He likes not those who commit excess. (7:31)

 

 

يُوصِيكُمُ اللَّـهُ فِي أَوْلَادِكُمْ

 

 

Allah instructs you concerning your children (4:11)

 

 

إِذْ قَالَ لَهُ رَبُّهُ أَسْلِمْ ۖ قَالَ أَسْلَمْتُ لِرَبِّ الْعَالَمِينَ

 

 

When his Lord said to him, “Submit,” he said, “I have submitted [in Islam] to the Lord of the worlds.” (2:131)

 

 

5. تَفَعَّلَ – triliteral root form

 

the triliteral root form تَفَعَّلَ| Arabic free courses

 

Table of the root form تفَعَّلَ

 

The form تَفَعَّلَ is made by prefixing the letter Ta ت with fatha to the root form فَعَلَ. Also, the letter ع will carry a shaddah.

 

  • Past tense – تَفَعَّلَ
  • Imperfect tense – يَتَفَعَّلُ
  • Imperative – تَفَعَّلْ
  • Verbal noun – تَفَعُّلٌ
  • Active participle  – مُتَفَعِّلٌ
  • Passive participle  – مُتَفَعَّلٌ
  • Past passive  – تُفُعِّلَ
  • Imperfect passive  – يَتَفَعَّلُ

 

Point to note:

 

1. تفَعَّلَ is the reflexive form of فَعَّلَ. Here the action relates back to the doer

 

Examples:

 

  • عَلَّمَ –  to teach
  • تَعَلَّمَ – to learn

 

  • فَرَّقّ – to separate
  • تَفَرَّقَ – to be separated

 

  • فَسَّحَ – to make spacious
  • تَفَسَّحَ – to become spacious

 

 

إِذَا قِيلَ لَكُمْ تَفَسَّحُوا فِي الْمَجَالِسِ

 

 

when you are told, “Space yourselves” in assemblies, then make space (58:11)

 

 

وَاذْكُرِ اسْمَ رَبِّكَ وَتَبَتَّلْ إِلَيْهِ تَبْتِيلًا 

 

 

And remember the name of your Lord and devote yourself to Him with [complete] devotion. (73:8)

 

 

2. Verbs made from nouns

 

 

  • إثْمٌ – sin
  • تَأَثَّمَ – to shun away from sin

 

 

3. Verbs that indicate gradual action

 

 

  • جَرَعَ – to swallow, to sip
  • تَجَرَّعَ – to drink sip by sip

 

 

يَتَجَرَّعُهُ وَلَا يَكَادُ يُسِيغُهُ

 

 

He will gulp it but will hardly [be able to] swallow it. (17:17)

 

 

4. تَفَعَّلَ root verbs with complete new meaning

 

 

  • كَلِمَ – to injure
  • تَكَلَّمَ – to speak

 

  • صَدَقَ – to speak the truth
  • تَصَدَّقَ – to give charity

 

 

وَالْمُتَصَدِّقِينَ وَالْمُتَصَدِّقَاتِ

 

 

the charitable men and charitable women (33:35)

 

 

Examples of the triliteral root form تَفَعَّلَ used in the Holy Quran

 

 

وَالَّذِينَ يُتَوَفَّوْنَ مِنكُمْ وَيَذَرُونَ أَزْوَاجًا

 

 

And those who are taken in death among you and leave wives behind (2:234)

 

 

وَلَا تَتَمَنَّوْا مَا فَضَّلَ اللَّـهُ

 

 

And do not wish for that by which Allah has made (4:32)

 

 

لِّيَغْفِرَ لَكَ اللَّـهُ مَا تَقَدَّمَ

 

 

That Allah may forgive for you what preceded (48:2)

 

 

وَاعْتَصِمُوا بِحَبْلِ اللَّـهِ جَمِيعًا وَلَا تَفَرَّقُوا

 

 

And hold firmly to the rope of Allah all together and do not become divided. (3:103)

 

 

وَيَوْمَ تَقُومُ السَّاعَةُ يَوْمَئِذٍ يَتَفَرَّقُونَ

 

 

And the Day the Hour appears – that Day they will become separated. (30:14)

 

 

رَبِّ اجْعَلْنِي مُقِيمَ الصَّلَاةِ وَمِن ذُرِّيَّتِي ۚ رَبَّنَا وَتَقَبَّلْ دُعَاءِ

 

 

My Lord, make me an establisher of prayer, and [many] from my descendants. Our Lord, and accept my supplication. (14:40)

 

 

 رَبَّنَا تَقَبَّلْ مِنَّا ۖ إِنَّكَ أَنتَ السَّمِيعُ الْعَلِيمُ

 

 

Our Lord, accept [this] from us. Indeed You are the Hearing, the Knowing. (2:127)

 

 

الَّذِي يُؤْتِي مَالَهُ يَتَزَكَّىٰ 

 

 

[He] who gives [from] his wealth to purify himself (92:18)

 

 

6. تَفَاعَلَ – triliteral verb form

 

تَفَاعَلَ vebr form | Arabic free courses  

If the prefix ت  is added to form III – فَاعَلَ it becomes تَفَاعَلَ.

 

Table of تَفَاعَلَ

 

 

  • Past tense – تَفَاعَلَ
  • Imperfect tense – يَتَفَاعَلُ
  • Imperative – تًفَاعَلْ
  • Verbal noun – تَفَاعُلٌ
  • Active participle  – مُتَفَاعِلٌ
  • Passive participle  – مُتَفَاعَلٌ
  • Past passive  – تُوُوْعِلَ
  • Imperfect passive  – يُتَفَعَلُ

 

Point to note:

 

1. Words of this form usually show an action being done with another (person or group)

 

Examples:

 

  • حَرَبَ – to fight
  • تَحَارَبَ – to fight each other

 

  • عَاوَنَ – to help
  • تَعَاوَن – to co-operate/to help one another

 

 

2. When ى  comes in the place of third radical ل

 

Examples:

 

  • تَجَافَى – to turn away from

 

 

Table of تَفَاعَلَ

 

 

  • Past tense – تَجَافَى
  • Imperfect tense – يَتَجَافَى
  • Imperative – تَجَافَى
  • Verbal noun – تَجَافٍ
  • Active participle  – مُتَجَافٍ
  • Passive participle  – مُتَجَافًى
  • Past passive  –تُجُوْفِىَ
  • Imperfect passive  – يُتَجَافَى

 

 

تَتَجَافَىٰ جُنُوبُهُمْ عَنِ الْمَضَاجِعِ

 

 

They arise from [their] beds (32:16)

 

 

إِذَا تَرَاضَوْا بَيْنَهُم بِالْمَعْرُوفِ

 

 

 if they agree among themselves on an acceptable basis.  (2:232)

 

 

تَفَاعَلَ verb form used in the Holy Quran

 

 

وَلَا تَلْمِزُوا أَنفُسَكُمْ وَلَا تَنَابَزُوا بِالْأَلْقَابِ

 

 

 And do not insult one another and do not call each other by [offensive] nicknames. (49:11)

 

 

وَتَعَاوَنُوا عَلَى الْبِرِّ وَالتَّقْوَىٰ

 

 

And cooperate in righteousness and piety (5:2)

 

 

 إِلَّا الَّذِينَ آمَنُوا وَعَمِلُوا الصَّالِحَاتِ وَتَوَاصَوْا بِالْحَقِّ وَتَوَاصَوْا بِالصَّبْرِ

 

 

Except for those who have believed and done righteous deeds and advised each other to truth and advised each other to patience. (103:3)

 

 

 خِتَامُهُ مِسْكٌ ۚ وَفِي ذَٰلِكَ فَلْيَتَنَافَسِ الْمُتَنَافِسُونَ

 

 

The last of it is musk. So for this, let the competitors compete. (83:26)

 

 

 وَإِذَا مَرُّوا بِهِمْ يَتَغَامَزُونَ

 

 

And when they passed by them, they would exchange derisive glances. (83:30)

 

 

وَلَوْ تَوَاعَدتُّمْ لَاخْتَلَفْتُمْ فِي الْمِيعَادِ

 

 

 If you had made an appointment [to meet], you would have missed the appointment (8:42)

 

 

وَلَتَنَازَعْتُمْ فِي الْأَمْرِ 

 

and would have disputed in the matter [of whether to fight], (8:43)

 

 

فَلَمَّا تَرَاءَتِ الْفِئَتَانِ نَكَصَ عَلَىٰ عَقِبَيْهِ

 

 

But when the two armies sighted each other, he turned on his heels (8:48)

 

 

فَأَقْبَلَ بَعْضُهُمْ عَلَىٰ بَعْضٍ يَتَلَاوَمُونَ

 

 

Then they approached one another, blaming each other. (68:30)

 

 

7. إنْفَعَلَ – triliteral verb form

 

إنْفَعَلَ triliteral verb form in arabic | arabic free class

 

The form إنْفَعَلَ is constructed by prefixing إنْ to the triliteral root.

 

 

Table of إِنْفَعَلَ

 

 

  • Past tense – إِنْفَعَلَ
  • Imperfect tense – يَنْفَعِلُ
  • Imperative – إِنْفَعِلْ
  • Verbal noun – إِنْفِعَالٌ
  • Active participle  – مُنْفَعِلٌ

 

 

فَانفَجَرَتْ مِنْهُ اثْنَتَا عَشْرَةَ عَيْنًا

 

 

 And there gushed forth from it twelve springs (2:60)

 

Point to note:

 

  1. Sometimes verbs of this form might have a completely new meaning from their triliteral root.
  • طَلَقَ – to be freed from the bond
  • إِنْطَلَقَ – to proceed/to depart

 

2. The transitive root verb is changed to intransitive in this form of the verb.

  • كَسَرَ – to break
  • إِنْكَسَرَ – to be broken

 

 

  • قَطَعَ – to cut
  • إِنْقَطَعَ – to be cut off

 

  • فَجَرَ – to cleave/dig
  • إِنْفَجَرَ – to gush out

 

 

Examples of إِنْفَعَلَ verb form used in the Holy Quran

 

 

إِذَا السَّمَاءُ انفَطَرَتْ

 

 

When the sky breaks apart (82:1)

 

 

فَانبَجَسَتْ مِنْهُ اثْنَتَا عَشْرَةَ عَيْنًا

 

 

 and there gushed forth from it twelve springs (7:160)

 

 

مُنفَكِّينَ حَتَّىٰ تَأْتِيَهُمُ الْبَيِّنَةُ

 

 

were not to be parted [from misbelief] until there came to them clear evidence  (98:1)

 

 

 ثُمَّ ارْجِعِ الْبَصَرَ كَرَّتَيْنِ يَنقَلِبْ إِلَيْكَ الْبَصَرُ خَاسِئًا وَهُوَ حَسِيرٌ

 

 

Then return [your] vision twice again. [Your] vision will return to you humbled while it is fatigued. (67:4)

 

 

 انطَلِقُوا إِلَىٰ مَا كُنتُم بِهِ تُكَذِّبُونَ

 

 

[They will be told], “Proceed to that which you used to deny. (77:29)

 

 

8.اِفْتَعَلَ triliteral verb form

 

اِفْتَعَلَ triliteral verb form  

 

Verbs of the form اِفْتَعَلَ are made by prefixing اِ and infixing ت after ف to فَعَلَ thus forming اِفْتَعَلَ.

 

 

Table of اِفْتَعَلَ

 

  • Past tense – اِفَتَعَلَ
  • Imperfect tense – يَفْتَعِلُ
  • Imperative – اِفْتَعِلْ
  • Verbal noun – اِفْتِعَالٌ
  • Active participle  – مُفْتَعِلٌ
  • Passive participle – مُفْتَعَلٌ
  • Past passive – أُفْتُعِلَ
  • Imperfect passive – يُفْتَعَلُ

 

Point to note:

 

  1. to choose/do something for oneself.

 

Examples:

 

  • كَانَ – to weigh, to measure
  • اِكْتَالَ – to receive by measure from

 

  • كَسَبَ – to earn
  • اِكْتَسَبَ – to gain for oneself

 

 

الَّذِينَ إِذَا اكْتَالُوا عَلَى النَّاسِ يَسْتَوْفُونَ

 

 

Who, when they take a measure from people, take in full. (83:2)

 

 

2. Sometimes, verbs of this form might have a completely new meaning from their triliteral root.

 

 

  • نَصَرَ – to help
  • اِنْتَصَرَ – to take revenge

 

  • ضَرَبَ – to strike
  • اِضْطَرَبَ – to be disturbed

 

  • حَرَمَ – to deprive of
  • اِحْتَرَمَ – to respect

 

 

3. The triliteral root and this form have the same meaning.

 

 

  • بَدَعَ – to originate
  • اِبْتَدَعَ – to invent

 

  • قَرُبَ – to be near/to approach
  • اِقْتَرَبَ – to come close/be nigh

 

اقْتَرَبَ لِلنَّاسِ حِسَابُهُمْ وَهُمْ فِي غَفْلَةٍ مُّعْرِضُونَ

 

 

[The time of] their account has approached the people, while they are in heedlessness turning away. (21:1)

 

 

4. If the first radical ف is one of the emphatic letters: ص – ض – ط – ظ  then the ت of اِفْتَعَلَ will be changed to “ط“.

 

Examples:

 

  • اِصْطَفَى = اِصْتَفَى – صَفَا – to be or become clear / to chose
  • اِضْطَرَبَ = اِضْتَرَبَ – ضَرَبَ – to strike / to disturbed – confused
  • اِطَّلَعَ = اِطْتَلَعَ – طَلَعَ – to ascend/appear – to look upon/to descend

 

 

إِنَّ اللَّـهَ اصْطَفَىٰ آدَمَ وَنُوحًا

 

 

Indeed, Allah chose Adam and Noah (33:3)

 

 

قَالَ هَلْ أَنتُم مُّطَّلِعُونَ

 

 

He will say, “Would you [care to] look?” (37:54)

 

 

فَاطَّلَعَ فَرَآهُ فِي سَوَاءِ الْجَحِيمِ

 

 

And he will look and see him in the midst of the Hellfire. (37:55)

 

 

أَطَّلَعَ الْغَيْبَ أَمِ اتَّخَذَ عِندَ الرَّحْمَـٰنِ عَهْدًا

 

 

Has he looked into the unseen, or has he taken from the Most Merciful a promise? (19:78)

 

 

 إِلَّا مَا اضْطُرِرْتُمْ إِلَيْهِ

 

 

excepting that to which you are compelled (6:119)

 

 

5. If the first radical ف is د or ز the ت of اِفْتَعَلَ will change to د.

 

Example:

  • زَادَ – to increase
  • اِزْدَادَ – to grow larger

 

  • دَخَلَ – to enter
  • ادَّخَلَ – to enter

 

 

6. If the first radical is ذ, then the ت of اِفْتَعَلَ will be changed to د, and the ذ be assimilated.

 

  • ذَكَرَ – to mention
  • اِدَّكَرَ – اِدْدَكَرَ – to remember

 

وَلَقَدْ يَسَّرْنَا الْقُرْآنَ لِلذِّكْرِ فَهَلْ مِن مُّدَّكِرٍ

 

 

And We have certainly made the Qur’an easy for remembrance, so is there any who will remember? (54:17)

 

 

7. If the first radical is hamza, then it will change to ت.

 

 

  • اِتَّخَذَ = اِئْتَخَذَ – أَخَذَ – to take

مَثَلُ الَّذِينَ اتَّخَذُوا مِن دُونِ اللَّـهِ أَوْلِيَاءَ

 

 

The example of those who take allies other than Allah (29:41)

 

 

8. If the weak letter و comes in place of ف, the first radical, the و will change to ت, and the pattern will be as shown in the example.

 

 

  • اِتَّصَلَ = اِوْتَصَلَ – وَصَلَ 

 

 

Table of اِتَّصَلَ to communicate, to connect:

 

 

  • Past tense – اِتَّصَلَ
  • Imperfect tense – يَتَّصِلُ
  • Imperative – اِتَّصِلْ
  • Verbal noun – اِتِّصَالٌ
  • Active participle  – مُتَّصِلٌ
  • Passive participle – مُتَّصَلٌ
  • Past passive – أٌتُّصِلَ
  • Imperfect passive – يُتَّصَلُ

 

 

9. When the first radical is ى as in the case of لَقِيَ, the verb in this form will be اِلْتَقَى

 

 

Table of اِلْتَقَى, to meet:

 

 

  • Past tense – اِلْتَقَى
  • Imperfect tense – يَلْتَقِي
  • Imperative – اِلْتَقِ
  • Verbal noun – اِلْتِقَاءٌ
  • Active participle  – مُلْتَقٍ
  • Passive participle – مُلْتَقًى
  • Past passive – أُلْتُقِيَ
  • Imperfect passive – يُلْتَقَى

 

 

يَوْمَ الْتَقَى الْجَمْعَانِ 

 

 

the day the two armies met (3:155)

 

 

10. In doubly weak verb where و comes in place of ف and ى in place of ل as in وَقَى, the و will change to ت to make اِتَّقَى.

 

 

Table of اِتَّقَى, to save oneself:

 

 

  • Past tense – اِتَّقَى
  • Imperfect tense – يَتَّقِي
  • Imperative – اِتَّقِ
  • Verbal noun – اِتَّقَاءٌ
  • Active participle  – مُتَّقٍ
  • Passive participle – مُتَّقَى
  • Past passive – أُتَّقِيَ
  • Imperfect passive – يُتَّقَى

 

 

لَعَلَّكُمْ تَتَّقُونَ

 

 

that you may become righteous (2:21)

 

 

Examples of اِفْتَعَلَ verb form used in the Holy Quran

 

 

 وَفَجَّرْنَا الْأَرْضَ عُيُونًا فَالْتَقَى الْمَاءُ عَلَىٰ أَمْرٍ قَدْ قُدِرَ

 

 

And caused the earth to burst with springs, and the waters met for a matter already predestined. (54:12)

 

 

وَلَكُمْ فِيهَا مَا تَشْتَهِي أَنفُسُكُمْ وَلَكُمْ فِيهَا مَا تَدَّعُونَ

 

 

And you will have therein whatever your souls desire, and you will have therein whatever you request [or wish] (41:31)

 

 

 وَلَحْمِ طَيْرٍ مِّمَّا يَشْتَهُونَ

 

 

And the meat of fowl, from whatever they desire. (56:21)

 

 

وَلَا تَسْتَوِي الْحَسَنَةُ وَلَا السَّيِّئَةُ

 

 

And not equal are the good deed and the bad (41:34)

 

 

وَلَا يَشْفَعُونَ إِلَّا لِمَنِ ارْتَضَىٰ

 

 

and they cannot intercede except on behalf of one whom He approves (21:28)

 

 

وَآخَرُونَ اعْتَرَفُوا بِذُنُوبِهِمْ

 

 

And [there are] others who have acknowledged their sins. (9:102)

 

 

وَاعْتَصِمُوا بِحَبْلِ اللَّـهِ جَمِيعًا وَلَا تَفَرَّقُوا

 

 

And hold firmly to the rope of Allah all together and do not become divided. (3:103)

 

 

لَهَا مَا كَسَبَتْ وَعَلَيْهَا مَا اكْتَسَبَتْ

 

 

 It will have [the consequence of] what [good] it has gained, and it will bear [the consequence of] what [evil] it has earned. (2:286)

 

 

9. اِفْعَلَّ triliteral verb form

 

اِفْعَلَّ  verb form

 

Prefixing اِ and doubling the ل makes اِفْعَلَّ. This form is used only to express colours and defects.

 

 

Table of اِفْعَلَّ

 

 

  • Past tense – اِفَتَعَلَ
  • Imperfect tense – يَفْتَعِلُ
  • Imperative – اِفْتَعِلْ
  • Verbal noun – اِفْتِعَالٌ
  • Active participle  – مُفْتَعِلٌ

 

 

As this form of a verb is intransitive – فِعْلُ اللَّازِم, there will be no passive participle and passive voice.

 

Examples:

  • اِبْيَضَّ – to become white
  • اِسْوَدَّ – to become black
  • اِصْفَرَّ – to become yellow
  • اِخْضَرَّ – to become green

 

 

فَأَمَّا الَّذِينَ اسْوَدَّتْ وُجُوهُهُمْ 

 

 

As for those whose faces turn black, [to them it will be said] (3:106)

 

 

وَأَمَّا الَّذِينَ ابْيَضَّتْ وُجُوهُهُمْ

 

 

But as for those whose faces will turn white,  (3:107)

 

 

وَابْيَضَّتْ عَيْنَاهُ مِنَ الْحُزْنِ

 

 

and his eyes became white from grief (12:84)

 

 

10. اِسْتَفْعَلَ triliteral verb form

 

اِسْتَفْعَلَ verb form | Arabic free course

 

 

اِسْتَفْعَلَ verb form is formed by prefixing اِسْتَ to فَعَلَ.

 

 

Table of اِسْتَفْعَلَ

 

 

  • Past tense – اِسْتَفعَلَ
  • Imperfect tense – يَسْتَفْعِلُ
  • Imperative – اِسْتَفْعِلْ
  • Verbal noun – اِسْتِفْعَالٌ
  • Active participle  – مُسْتَفْعِلٌ
  • Passive participle – مُسْتَفْعَلٌ
  •  
  • Past passive – أُسْتَفْعِلَ
  • Imperfect passive – يَسْتَفْعَلُ

Point to note:

  1. The main characteristic is that it often expresses the seeking, asking or demanding as expressed in the root form.

 

 

  • غَفَرَ – to pardon
  • اِسْتَغْفَرَ – to ask for pardon

 

  • أَذِنَ – to permit
  • اِسْتَاْذَنَ – to ask for permission

 

  • عَلِمَ – to know
  • اِسْتَعْلَمَ – to seek knowledge

 

  • نَصَرَ – to help
  • اِسْتَنْصَرَ – to seek help

 

2. This form indicates a certain quality which a person may or may not have.  

 

Examples:

 

  • عَظُمَ – to be great
  • اِسْتَعْظَمَ – to regard as great

 

  • كَرُمَ – to be generous
  • اِسْتَكْرَمَ –  to regard as generous

 

  • حَسُنَ – to be good
  • اِسْتَحْسُنَ –  to regard as good

 

3. This form is reflexive of the form اِفْعلَّ

 

  • أَخْبَرَ – to inform
  • اِسْتَخْبَرَ – to seek or gather information

 

  • أَسْلَمَ – to give up/ to deliver
  • اِسْتَسْلَمَ – to surrender
  •  

4. When ى comes in place of ل as in اِسْتَفْتَى, then the pattern is observed as below:

 

Table of اسْتَفْتَى – to ask for a legal opinion

 

 

  • Past tense – اِسْتَفْتَى
  • Imperfect tense – يَسْتَفْتِى
  • Imperative –اِسْتَفْتِ
  • Verbal noun – اِسْتِفْتَاءٌ
  • Active participle  – مُسْتَفْتٍ
  • Passive participle – مُسْتَفْتًى
  • Past passive – أُسْتُفْتِيَ
  • Imperfect passive – يُسْتَفْتَى

 

 

Examples of اِسْتَفْعَلَ verb form used in the Holy Quran

 

 

 إِيَّاكَ نَعْبُدُ وَإِيَّاكَ نَسْتَعِينُ

 

 

It is You we worship and You we ask for help. (1:5)

 

 

 إِنَّمَا يَسْتَجِيبُ الَّذِينَ يَسْمَعُونَ

 

 

Only those who hear will respond (3:36)

 

 

اسْتَجِيبُوا لِرَبِّكُم مِّن قَبْلِ أَن يَأْتِيَ يَوْمٌ لَّا مَرَدَّ لَهُ مِنَ اللَّـهِ

 

 

Respond to your Lord before a Day comes from Allah of which there is no repelling (42:47)

 

 

فَلْيَسْتَجِيبُوا لِي وَلْيُؤْمِنُوا بِي لَعَلَّهُمْ يَرْشُدُونَ 

 

 

 So let them respond to Me [by obedience] and believe in Me that they may be [rightly] guided. (2:186)

 

 

 فَإِن لَّمْ يَسْتَجِيبُوا لَكَ

 

 

But if they do not respond to you (28:50)

 

 

لَاسْتَكْثَرْتُ مِنَ الْخَيْرِ 

 

 

I could have acquired much wealth (7:188)

 

 

وَاسْتَغْشَوْا ثِيَابَهُمْ وَأَصَرُّوا وَاسْتَكْبَرُوا اسْتِكْبَارًا

 

 

covered themselves with their garments, persisted, and were arrogant with [great] arrogance. (71:7)

 

 

وَلَقَدْ رَاوَدتُّهُ عَن نَّفْسِهِ فَاسْتَعْصَمَ

 

 

 And I certainly sought to seduce him, but he firmly refused (12:32)

 

 

أَفَلَا يَتُوبُونَ إِلَى اللَّـهِ وَيَسْتَغْفِرُونَهُ

 

 

So will they not repent to Allah and seek His forgiveness? (5:74)

 

 

وَالْمُسْتَغْفِرِينَ بِالْأَسْحَارِ

 

 

and those who seek forgiveness before dawn. (3:17)

 

 

 

11. إِفْعَالَّ triliteral verb form

 

إِفْعَالَّ verb form | Arabic free course

 

إِفْعَالَّ is formed by prefixing إِ and infixing alif – ا  between ع nad ل and doubling the ل. Verbs of this form usually describe intensity in colour.

 

 

Table of إِفْعَالَّ

 

 

  • Past tense – إِفْعَالَّ
  • Imperfect tense – يَفْعَالُّ
  • Imperative – إِفْعَالِلْ
  • Verbal noun – إِفْعِيْلالٌ
  • Active participle  – مُفْعَالٌّ

 

Example:

  • إِدْهَامَّ – to be deep green/black

 

 

 

Example of إِفْعَالَّ verb form from the Holy Quran

 

مُدْهَامَّتَانِ

 

 

 

Dark green [in color]. (55:64)

 

 

You have now completed this Arabic lesson. The next one will be insha’Allah about introducing the four-lettered verbs in Arabic.

 

Al-dirassa centre offers you the possibility to study the Arabic language easily with a qualified teacher. If you are interested, do not hesitate to consult us.

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  1. […] You have now completed this Arabic lesson. The next one will be insha’Allah about the introduction to the  3 letters and 4 letters root verb in Arabic. […]


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