In a verbal sentence, the sentence begins with a verb.
وَقَتَلَ دَاوُودُ جَالُوتَ
and David killed Goliath (2:251)
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A verbal sentence comprises a verb, subject, and object. Usually, the verb comes first, followed by the subject and then the object.
The subject and the object are nouns. The subject is called اَلْفَاعِلُ, and the object is called اَلْمَفْعُولُ or اَلْمَفْعَلُولٌ بِهِ.
- The subject – اَلْفَاعِلُ is always in a nominative state, i.e., حَالُ الرَّفَعِ bearing dammah, or tanween dammah on it. Example: دَاوُودُ
- The object – اَلْمَفْعَلُولٌ بِهِ is always in an accusative state, i.e., حَالَةُ النّصّبِ bearing fatha, or tanween fatha on it. Example: جَالُوتَ
When the noun follows a preposition, it will be in the genitive state, i.e., حَالَةُ الْجَرِّ with a kasrah or tanween kasrah.
قَالُوا آمَنَّا بِاللَّـهِ وَحْدَهُ
they said,” We believe in Allah alone” (40:84)
ذَهَبَ اللَّـهُ بِنُورِهِمْ
Allah took away their light (2:17)
Pronouns are not required to be mentioned separately as subjects because they are hidden in the verb itself.
In خَلَقْتُ, the hidden pronoun is “I.”
وَإِذْ فَرَقْنَا بِكُمُ الْبَحْرَ فَأَنجَيْنَاكُمْ
And [recall] when We parted the sea for you and saved you (2:50)
In فَرَقْنَا, the hidden pronoun is “we.”
When the object is a pronoun, it usually precedes the subject after the verb.
لَّا يَتَكَلَّمُونَ إِلَّا مَنْ أَذِنَ لَهُ الرَّحْمَـٰنُ وَقَالَ صَوَابًا
they will not speak except for one whom the Most Merciful permits, and he will say what is correct. (78:38)
If the subject is in the form of a broken plural of non-human objects, the verb used will be feminine singular:
أُولَـٰئِكَ الَّذِينَ حَبِطَتْ أَعْمَالُهُمْ فِي الدُّنْيَا وَالْآخِرَةِ
They are the ones whose deeds have become worthless in this world and the Hereafter (3:22)
If the subject is given in a sentence (not in the form of a hidden pronoun), then a singular verb is used irrespective of the subject (singular, dual, plural). If a second verb is required, then it should be according to the subject.
وَأَذِنَتْ لِرَبِّهَا وَحُقَّتْ
And has responded to its Lord and was obligated [to do so] (84:2)
عَلِمَتْ نَفْسٌ مَّا أَحْضَرَتْ
A soul will [then] know what it has brought [with it]. (81:14)
رَفَعَ سَمْكَهَا فَسَوَّاهَا
He raised its ceiling and proportioned it. (79:28)