Introduction

 

Verbs with fixed prepositions are some verbs which are found with prepositions attached to their object. Verbs with such prepositions sometimes convey different meanings.

Verbs with fixed prepositions – قَضَ

 

 

قَضَ means “to judge, to fulfill, to decree,” but when it comes with the proposition عَلَى, it means “to bring to an end, to kill.”

 

وَإِذَا قَضَىٰ أَمْرًا فَإِنَّمَا يَقُولُ لَهُ كُن فَيَكُونُ

When He decrees a matter, He only says to it, “Be,” and it is (2:117)

 

 

 

 فَوَكَزَهُ مُوسَىٰ فَقَضَىٰ عَلَيْهِ

so Moses struck him and [unintentionally] killed him (28:15)

 

 

 

Verbs with fixed prepositions – شَهِدَ

 

 

شَهِدَ means “to bear witness, to be present. When it comes with عَلَى it means “to bear witness against, give testimony against”.

 

فَمَن شَهِدَ مِنكُمُ الشَّهْرَ فَلْيَصُمْهُ

So whoever sights [the new moon of] the month, let him fast it; (2:185)

 

 

قَالُوا شَهِدْنَا عَلَىٰ أَنفُسِنَا

They will say, “We bear witness against ourselves”; (6:130)

 

 

 

Verbs with fixed prepositions – تَابَ

 

 

تَابَ with or without إلى means “to repent” but when it comes with عَلَى it means, “o accept repentance, to forgive”.

 

 فَمَن تَابَ مِن بَعْدِ ظُلْمِهِ وَأَصْلَحَ فَإِنَّ اللَّـهَ يَتُوبُ عَلَيْهِ

But whoever repents after his wrongdoing and reforms, indeed, Allah will turn to him in forgiveness. (5:39)

 

 

 

Verbs with fixed prepositions – جَاءَ

 

When جَاءَ comes without any preposition it means “to come”. However, when it is used with the preposition بِ it means, “to get/to bring”.

 

فَلَمَّا جَاءَهُ وَقَصَّ عَلَيْهِ الْقَصَصَ

So when he came to him and related to him the story (28:25)

 

 

قُلْ مَنْ أَنزَلَ الْكِتَابَ الَّذِي جَاءَ بِهِ مُوسَىٰ

Say, “Who revealed the Scripture that Moses brought (6:91)

 

 

 

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The following table shows verbs with fixed prepositions  with fixed prepositions:

 

 

 

Verb with meaningPrepositionMeaning with preposition
قَالَ  He said, to speak, to inspire, to indicateلِHe said, to speak, to inspire, to indicate
وَهَبَ  To give as a gift, to grant, to bestow on, dedicateلِTo give as a gift, to grant, to bestow on, dedicate
غَفَرَ To cover, veilلِTo forgive, pardon
شَكَرَ To realize or acknowledge one’s favor, to thank, be gratefulلِTo realize or acknowledge one’s favor, to thank, be grateful
سَجَدَ To prostrate, to be submissiveلِTo prostrate, to be submissive
اَذِنَ To bear, perceive, respond, listen, allow, give permissionلِTo bear, perceive, respond, listen, allow, give permission
شَهِدَ Be witness, be presentلِBe witness, be present
عَلىTo bear witness, give testimony against
عَفَا To pass over, to forgetعَنْ – لِTo forgive, to pardon
عَنْTo abound
كَشَفَ To removeعَنْTo pull away, to remove, take off, to open up, lay open, to bare
نَهَى To forbidعَنْTo prevent, forbid, prohibit, restrain
ضَلَّ To go astrayعَنْTo stray, disappear, go away, failed
تَلَا To followعَلَىTo recite
مَرَّ To pass, move, pass onعَلَىTo pass on, by
بِTo pass with, carry
دَلَّ Indicated, showed, pointed at, guided, discoveredعَلَىTo indicate, point, show, guide, discover
قَضَى To fulfill, to judge, decideعَلَىTo bring to an end, i.e. to kill
قَصَّ To communicate, narrate (a story), to follow one’s trackعَلَىTo communicate, narrate (a story), to follow one’s track
دَخَلَ To enterعَلَىTo enter
عَرَضَ To happen, to take placeعَلَىTo show, to set before, propound a matter
لِTo offer, to present
تَابَ To seek forgiveness, to repentإِلَىTo seek forgiveness, to repent
عَلَىTo accept repentance, to forgive
وَصَلَ To reach a place, to arrive at, to seek friendship, to reconcileإِلىTo agree, to make up, to reconcile, to arrive at, to reach a place
طَلَعَ To appear, rise, to ascendعَلَى – عَنْTo depart from
رَضِىَ To be pleased, satisfied, content, chosen, preferبِ – عَنْTo be pleased
جَاءَ He cameبِHe brought, he got
أَتَى He came, arrivedبِHe brought, he got, he gave
هَمَّ To interest, regard, concern, worry, careبِTo have in mind, intend, desire
خَرَجَ To  come outبِTo come out, produce
أَمَرَ To commandبِTo command
عَاذَ To seek protection take refugeبِTo seek protection take refuge
كَفَرَ To be ungrateful, negligent, thanklessبِTo hide, to refuse, to deny, reject, to disbelieve, denied ungratefully
ذَهَبَ He went, is gone    بِTook away
عَنْis gone away, departed
رَغِبَ To longفِيto desire, long for
عَنْto have no desire, to be averse
إِلىto supplicate
عَنْ – بِto prefer (one thing over another)
بَاءَ Settled, incurred, earnedإِلىTo come back to, return
بِTo bring, lead back, to bear
بَغَى To seek, wish for, desire, oppressعَلَىTo be unjust, to oppress
ضَرَبَ To strike, to beat   with مَتَلَا: to coin a similitude, give a parable, set an example

 

 

Examples used in the Noble Quran

 

إِذْ قَالَ لَهُ رَبُّهُ أَسْلِمْ ۖ قَالَ أَسْلَمْتُ لِرَبِّ الْعَالَمِينَ

When his Lord said to him, “Submit”, he said “I have submitted [in Islam] to the Lord of the worlds.” (2:131)

 

 

 

فَلَمَّا كَشَفْنَا عَنْهُ ضُرَّهُ

 but when We remove from him his affliction (10:12)

 

 

أَوْ كَالَّذِي مَرَّ عَلَىٰ قَرْيَةٍ وَهِيَ خَاوِيَةٌ عَلَىٰ عُرُوشِهَا

Or [consider such an example] as the one who passed by a township which had fallen into ruin. (2:259)

 

 

 

This Arabic lesson is now finished. The next one will be insha’Allah about the imperfect tense in Arabic.

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